Skip to main content

Full text of "Observations on the emigration of Dr. Joseph Priestley, and on the several addresses delivered to him, on his arrival at New-York, with additions : containing many curious and interesting facts on the subject, not known here, when the first edition was published : together with a comprehensive story of a farmer's bull"

See other formats


- ■ . 


BHBFr ! 



* i 

^ . . 



GPO 16—67244-1 




O F 









11 Du mcnsonge tou jours le vrai demeure maitre : 

" Pour paraitre honnete homme, en un mot, ilfaut l'etre; 

<■' Et jamais, quoi qu'il fafle, un mortel ici bas, 

« Ne peut aux yeux du monde etre ce qu'il n'eft pas." 





•795- j&F* <**% 



To the Gazetteer's of the City 

of Philadelphia. 


WHEN this Pamphlet Jirfl made its ap- 
pearance in this City, you all agreed, that 
it might do well enough in the defpotic 
States of Europe ; but that it was by no 
means fit for the meridian of the United 
States. And, you have very lately obliged 
the public with the copy of a letter from Li- 
verpool, in which, you jay, the writer ob» 
ferves, that the Observations on the 
Emigration of Do&or Jofeph Prieftley 
hive been repub lifted there, and that, 
" it is one of the moflfcandalous publica- 
" tions that ever iff ued from any prefs" 

The/e are rather hard lines, gentlemen. 
J do not know whit I have done, thus to 
draw down your vengeance on me. 'Tis 
true, I cannot, like you, take tozons and 
iflands asfafl as Father Luke takes fnvff, 
A 2 

[ 4 ] 

or erecl a bridge acrofs the Englijh Chan- 
nel with as little trouble as fome people can 
the bridge of a fiddle : I cannot put Dukes 
into iron cages, and fend them to Paris 
for Mocking Birds, or chop away at the 
heads oj kings and miniflers with as little 
ceremony as if I were chopping a flick of 
wood: nor can I /pre ad fleets over the o- 
cean, and religion, peace and plenty over 
a country as quick as a furgeons prentice 
jpreads a plaifler. A'e, gentlemen, it is 
your province to perform feats like thefe, 
and, if I am not much deceived in my own 
heart, I am far, very far, from envying 
ynu your exalted jlaiivns. But, if you are 
firong, be merciful. '7 hough you are the 
great Laviathans of Literature, you may 
juflfer a poor herring to fwim in the fame 
Jea ; there is certainly room enough for 
you and me too. 

Was it well done, gentlemen, fir /I to 
play at foot- ball with a poor pamphlet 
'till you zoere tired, and then tin nit into 
a fliuttlc-cock and jet xonr devils to knock- 
ing-itfromonehemifphere to the other? 
Afiuredh not ; for, 'though the work it- 
f elf might merit rough treatment at your 
h'rnds, yet, as it was in print, the natural, 
afifeclion that you mufl be fuppoted to bear 
your typographical brethren, ought to have 
'rrakenedinyoufome compafifion towards it 9 

i 5 3 

You have had the goodnefs to injorm t/14 
public, that this work is neither fit for the 
meridian of the United States, nor the 
meridian of Great Britain ; but, it ap- 
pears that the public (in this country at 
leaftj think other wife. How the public 
dare to differ from you in opinion I jhall 
■not pretend to fay, but certain it is, that 
the numerous applications for this pam- 
phlet have induced me to publifh, with 
your leave, a third edition of it. 
' To render this edition more worthy the 
perufal of your Honours than tie la ft, 
J have made a confiderable addition, which 
I been able to dojrom my being nozo 
in poffeffion offome curious fails, concern- 
ing the Dotlors Emigration, which were 
unknown on this fide the water, when the 
firfl edition was publtflied. 

I obey the call for this edition with more 
pleafure, as it furnifhes me with an oppor- 
tunity of proving, beyond contradiction, 
many things, which fome people have look- 
ed upon as very " hazarded affertions," 
and which you, gentlemen (never the 
Tiioft delicate) have not Jcrupled to call 

I cannot conclude this addrefs, with- 
out praying you to continue me your 
good offices. If the fufl edition merit- 
ed your dif approbation, I am in hopes this 

C 6 ] 

will he found to merit it in a much higher 
degree. Ifitfhould be other wife decreed, 
if I am doomed to fujfer your applaufes, I 
trull, that he who is preparing me the 
chajlifement, will give me fortitude to bear 
it like a man. 



Your's, &c. Sec. 

The Author. 

Philadelphia ? 
Feb. Stb. 1795.5 


W HEN the arrival of Doftor Piieft.- 
ley in the United States was firft announced, I 
looked upon his emigration (like the propofed 
retreat of Cowley, to his imaginary Paradife, 
the Summer Iflands) as no more than the effect 
of that weaknefs, that delufive caprice, which 
too often accompanies the decline of life, and 
which is apt, by a change of place, to natter 
age with a renovation of faculties, and a return 
of departed genius. Viewing him as a man 
that fought repofe, my heart welcomed him to 
the fhores of peace, and wilhed him, what he 
certainly ought to have wifhed himfelf, a quiet 
obfcurity. Bui his anfwers to the addrefles of 
the Democratic and other Societies at New- 
York, place him in quite a different light, and 
fubjedt him to the animadverfions of a public, 
among whom they have been induftrioufly pro- 

[ 8 ] 

No man has a right to pry into his neigh- 
bours private concerns ; and the opinions oi" 
every man are his private concerns, while he 
keeps them fo ; that is to fay, while they are 
confined to himfelf, his family and particular 
friends : but when he makes thofe opinions 
public ; when he once attempts to make con- 
verts, whether it be in religion, politics, or 
any thing elfe ; when he once comes forward 
as a candidate for public admiration, efteeni 
or compaffion, his opinions, his principles, 
his motives, every action of his life, public or 
private, become the fair fubject of public dif- 
cuffi- n. On this principle, which the Doctor 
ought to be the laft among Mankind to contro- 
vert, it is eafy to perceive that thefe obferva- 
tions need no apology. 

His anfwers to the addreffes of the New- 
York focieties are evidently calculated to mif- 
lead and deceive the people of the United States. 
He there endeavours to impofe himfelf on 
them for a fuiferer in the caufe of Liberty j 
and makes a canting profeffion of moderation, 
in direct contradiction to the conduct of his 
whole life. 

He fays, he hopes to find here, " that pro- 
" tection from violence, which laws and govern- 
" ment promife in all countries, but which he 
" has not found in his own." He certainly mult 
fuppofe that no European intelligence ever 
reaches this fide of the Atlantic, or that the in- 
habitants of thefe countries are too dull to com- 
prehend the fublime events that mark his life 
and character. Perhaps I fhall mow him, that 
not the people of England alone who know 

C 9 ] 

how to eftimate the merit of Doctor PriefHey. 

Let us examine his claims to our companion : 
let us fee whether his charge againft the laws 
and government of his country be juft, or not. 

On the 14th of July, 1791, an unruly mob, 
aflfembledin the town of Birmingham, fet fire to 
his houfe, and burnt it, together with all it con- 
tained. This is the fubjed of his complaint, and 
the pretended caufe of his emigration. The fact 
is not denied ; but in the relation of facts circum- 
flances mud not be forgotten. To judge of the 
Doctor's charge againlt his country, we mud 
take a retro fpective view of his conduct, and of 
the circu.mftafices that led to the deflrudion of 
his property. 

It is about twelve years fmce he began to be 
diftinguiihed among the diffenters from the 
eftabliihed church of England. He preached 
up a kind of deifm* which nobody underftood, 
and which it was thought the Doctor underftood 
full as well as his neighbours. This doctrine 
afterwards aflumed the name of Unitarianifm, 
and the religieux of the order were called, or 
rather they called themfelves, Unitarians. The 
feet never rofe into confequence ; and the foun- 
der had the mortification of feeing his darling 
Unitarianifm growing quite out of date with 

* This is one ofthofe" hazarded affertions;" alluded 
to in the introductory addrefs. But how is it hazarded ? 
The Dottorfays, in his anfwer to Paine's Age of Reafon, 
that " the doctrines of atonement, incarnation, and the 
" trinity, have no more foundation in the fcriptures, than 
" the doftrine of ''tranfmigrathnl" Is not this a kind of 
dsifin ? Is it not deifin altogether ? Can a man who denies 
the divinity of Chrif}, and that he died to fave finners, hava 
*nv pretentions to the nam? of Chrijiiau ; 


[ io ] 

himfelf, when the French Revolution came, 
and gave them both a fhort refpite from eternal 

Thofe who know any thing of the Englifh 
diflenters, know that they always introduce their 
political claims and projects under the mafk of re- 
ligion. The Doctor was one of thofe who en- 
tertained hopes of bringing about a revolution 
in England upon the French plan ; and for this 
purpoie he found it would be very convenient 
for him to be at the head of a religious feci. 
Unitarianifm was now revived, and the fociety 
held regular meetings at Birmingham. In the 
inflammatory difcourfes, called feftnons, deliver- 
ed at thefe meetings, the Englifh conftitution 
was firft openly attacked. Here it was that the 
Doctor beat his drum ecclefiaftic, to raife re- 
cruits in the caufe of rebellion. The prefs foon 
fwarmed with publications expreflive of his 
principles. The revol utionifts began to form fo- 
cieties all over the kingdom, between which a 
mode of communication was eftablifhed, in per- 
fect conformity to that of the Jacobin Clubs in 

Nothing was neglected by this branch of the 
parifian Propagande to excite the people to a ge- 
neral infurrection. Inflammatory hand-bills, ad- 
vertifements, federation dinners, toafts, fermons, 
prayers ; in fhort, every trick that religious or 
political duplicity could fuggeft, was played oft 
to deftroy a conftitution which has borne the 
teft, and attracted the admiration of ages ; and 
to eftablifh in its place a new fyftem, fabricated 
by themfelves. 

The fourteenth of July, 1791, was of too much 
note in the annals of modern regeneration to be 

L » ] 

neglected by thefe regenerated politicians. A 
club of them, of which Doctor Prieftley was a 
member, gave public notice of a feaft, to be held 
at Birmingham, in which they intended to ce- 
lebrate the French revolution. Their endea- 
vours had hitherto excited no other fentiments, 
in what may be called the people of England, 
than thofe of contempt. The people of Birming- 
ham, however, felt, on this occafion, a convul- 
five movement. They were fcandalifed at this 
public notice for holding in their town a fefti- 
val, to celebrate events which were in reality 
a fubjecl of the deepeft horror : and feeing in it 
at the fame time an open and audacious attempt 
to deftroy the conftitution of their country, and 
with it their happinefs, they thought their un- 
derftandings and loyalty infulted, and prepared 
to avenge themfelves by the chaftifement of the 
Englifli revolutionifts, in the midft of their 
fcandalous orgies. The feaft neverthelefs took 
place ; but the Doctor, knowing himfelf to be 
the grand projector, and confequently the parti- 
cular object of his townfmen's vengeance, pru- 
dently kept away. The cry of church and king 
was the fignal for the people to aftemble ; which 
they did to a confiderable number, oppofite 
the hotel where the convives were met. The 
club difperfed, aud the mob proceeded to break- 
ing the windows, and other acts of violence in- 
cident to fuch fcenes ; but let it be remembered 
that no perfonal violence was offered. Perhaps it 
would have been well, if they had vented their 
an^er on the perfons of the revolutionifts ; pro- 
vided they had contented themfelves with the 
B 2 

[ 12 ] 

ceremony of the horfe-pond or blanket, i 
tain it is, that it would have been very fortunate 
if the riot had ended this way ; but when that 
many-headed monfter, a mob, is onceroufed 
and put in motion, who can flop its destructive 
fteps ? 

From the hotel of the federation the mob proceed- 
ed to Doctor Prieftley's Meeting-Houfe, which 
they very nearly deftroyed in a little time. Had 
they (lopped here all would yet have been well. 
The deftruction of this temple of fedition and 
infidelity would have been of no great confe- 
quence ; but, unhappily for them and the town 
of Birmingham, they could not be feperated, be- 
fore they had deftroyed the houies and proper- 
ty of many members of the club. Some of 
thefe houfes, among which was Doctor Prieft- 
ley's, were fituated at the diftance of fome miles 
from town ; the mob were in force to defy all 
the efforts of the civil power, and, unluckily, 
none of the military could be brought to the 
place,, 'till fome days after the 1 4th of July. In 
the mean time many fpacious and elegant houfes 
were burm, and much valuable property deftroy- 
ed ; but it is certainly worthy remark, that du- 
ring the whole of thefe unlawful proceedings, 
not a fnigle perfon was killed or wounded, either 
wilfully or by accident, except fome of the rio- 
ters themfelves. At the end of four or five days 
this riot, which feemed to threaten more ferious 
ccnfequences, was happily terminated by the 
arrival of a detachment of dragoons ; and tran- 
quillity was reilored to the dilirefied town of 

> The magiftrates ufed every exertion in 
their power to quell this riot in in very eaiiieft 

L 13 J 

ftage, and continued fo to do tothelafi. The 
Earl of Plymouth condefcended to attend, and 
a& as a juftice of the peace ; feveral clergymen 
of the church of England alio attended in the 
fame capacity, and all were indefatigable in 
their endeavors to put a flop to the deprecia- 
tions, and to re-eftablim order. 

Every one knows, that in fuch cafes, ^ it is 
difficult to difcriminate, and that it is neither 
neceffary nor juft, if it be poffible, to imprifon, 
try, and execute the whole of a mob, Eleven 
of thefe rioters were, however, indicted; feyen 
of them were acquitted, four found guilty, and 
of thefe four, two fuffered death. Thefe un- 
fortunate men were, according to the law, pro- 
fecuted on the part or the king ; and it has 
been allowed by the Doctor's own partizan*, 
that the profecution was carried on with every 
poffible enforcement, and even rigour, by the 
^udp-es and counfellors. The pretended lenity 
\vas°laid to the charge of the jury 1 What a 
contradiction ! They aecufe the government of 
of fcreening the rioters from the penalty due to 
their crimes, and at the fame time they accufc 
the jury of their acquittal ! It is the misfortune 
of Doctor Prieflley and all his adherents ever 
to be inconfiilent with themfelves. 

Alter this general review of the riots, in 
which the Doctor was unlawfully defpoiled of 
his property, let us return to the merits of his 
particular cafe, and his complaint ; and here 
let it be recollected, that it is not of the rioters 
alone that he complains, but of the. laws and 
government of his country alio. Upon an ex- 
amination of particulars we fhall find, that io 

C -4 ] 

far from his having jufl caufe of complaint, the 
laws have rendered him ftrict juftice, if not 
fomething more ; and that if any party has 
relfon to complain of their execution, it is the 
town of Birmingham, and not Doctor Prieflly. 
Some time after the riots, the Doctor and 
the other Revolutionifts who had had property 
deftroyed, brought their adtions, for damages 
againli the town of Birmingham, or rather 
againft the hundred of which that town makes 
a part. The Doctor laid his damages at £.41 22. 
11. 9. Jierling ; of which fum £. 420. 15. o. 
was for works in manufcript, which he faid, 
had been confumed in the flames. The trial of 
this caufe took up nine hours : the jury gave a 
verdict in his favor; but curtailed the damages 
to£. 2502. 18. o. It was rightly confidered 
that the imaginary value of the manufcript 
works ought not to have been included in the 
damages; becaufe the Doctor being the author 
of them, he in fact pofTelfed them ftill, and the 
iofs could be little more than a few meets of 
dirty paper. Befides if they were to be efH- 
mated by thofe he had publimed for fome years 
before, their deitruction was a benefit inftead 
of a lofs, both to himfelf and his country. This 
fum then of £.420. 15. o. being deducted, the 
dami^as flood at £.3701. 16. 9 ; and it 
mould not be forgotten that even a great part 
of this fum was charged for an af^aratus of phi- 
iofophical intruments, which in fpite of the 
molt unpardonable gafconade of the Philofo- 

[ '5 1 

pher, * can be looked upon as a thing of ima- 
ginary value only ; and ought not to beeftima- 
ted at its cqfi any more than a collection of {hells 
or infects, or any other of the jrivola of a 

Now, it is notorious that actions for da- 
mages are always brought for much higher fums 
than are ever expected to be recovered. Some- 
times they are brought for three times the 
amount of the real damage fuftained ; fome- 
times for double, and fometimes for only a third 
more than the real damage. If we view then 
the Doctor's eftimate in the moft favorable 
light, if we fuppofe that he made but the addi- 
tion of one third to his real damages, the fum 
he ought to have received would be no more 
than £. 2467. 17. 10; whereas he actually 
received £. 2502. 18. o; which was £. 35. 
o, 2 •, more than he had a right to expect. 
And yet he complains that he has not found 
protection from the laws and goverment of his 
country ! If he had been the very befl fubject 
in England in place of one of the very worft, 
what could the laws have done more for him ? 
Nothing certainly can be a ftronger proof of 
the independence of the courts of juftice, and 
of the impartial execution of the laws of England 
than the circumftances and refultofthis caufe. 


" You have deftroyed the mod: truly valuable and ufeful 
'• apparatus* of philofophical inftruments that perhaps 
" any individual, in this or any other country, was ever 
" pofleiled of, in my ufe of which I annually fpent large 
" fums, with no pecuniary view whatever, but only in 
** the advancement of fcience, for the bens ft of my country 
u and of mankind." 

Letter to the inhabitants of 'Birmingham. 

L 16 ] 

A 51 an who had for many years been the $2 
vowed and open enemy of the government and 
-conftitution, had his property deuroyed by a 
mob, who declared themfelves the friends of 
both, and who rofe on him becaufe he was not. 
This mob were purfued by the government 
whofccaufe they thought they were defending ; 
fome of them fuffered death, and the inhabi- 
tants of the place where they affembled, were 
obliged to indemnify the man whofe property 
they had deftroyed. It would be curious to 
know what fort of protection this reverend 
Doctor, this "friend of humanity" wanted. 
Would nothing fatisfy him but the blood of 
the whole mob ? Did he wifh to fee the town 
of Birmingham, like that of Lyons, razed, and 
all its indufirious and loyal inhabitants butch- 
ered ; becaufe fome of them had been carried 
to commit unlawful exceftes from their detefta- 
tion of his wicked projects ? Birmingham 


Birmingham i s no more. This I fuppofe 
l would have fatisfied the charitable modern phi- 
lofopher, who pretended, and who the De- 
mocratic fociety fay did, " return to his enemies 
bleflings for curies. " Woe to the wretch that 
is expofed to the benedictions of a modern 
philofopher. His "dextre vengrejfe" is ten thou- 
sand times more to be feared than the bloody 
poignard of the affaflin : the latter is drawn on 
individuals only, the other is pointed at the 
human race. Happily for the people of Bir- 
mingham thefe bleffings had no effect; there 
was no National Convention, Revolutionary 
Tribunal, or Guillotine, in England. 

[ >7 ] 

As I have already obferved, if the Doctor 
had been the befl and moil peaceable fubject in 
the kingdom, the government and laws could 
not have yielded him more perfect protection •, 
his complaint, would therefore be groundlefs, if 
he had given no provocation to the people, if he 
had in nowife contributed to the riots. If then 
he has received ample juftice, confidered as an 
innocent man, and a good fubjed, what {hall we 
think of his complaint, when we find that he 
was himfelf the principal caufe of thefe riots ; 
and that the rioters did nothing that was not 
perfectly confonant to the principles he had for 
many years been labouring to infufe into their 
minds ? 

That he and his club were the caufe of the 
riots will not be difputed ; for had they not 
given an infulting notice of their intention o 
celebrate the horrors of the fourteenth of ]n ] v, 
accompanied with an inflammatory hand-bill, 
intended to excite an infurre&ion againft the 
government, * no riot would ever have taken 
place, and confequently its difaftrous effe&s 
would have been avoided. But, it has been 
laid, that there was nothing offenfive in this in- 
flammatory hand-bill ; becaufe forfooth "the 
** matter of it (however indecent and untrue) 
** was not more virulent than Paine's Rights of 
" man, MackintohYs anfwer to Burke, Remarks 

* This hand-bill was difowned by the club, and they 
offered a reward for apprehending the author ; but they 
took care to fend him to "France before their advertifeoieut 


[ i3 ] 

" on the conftitution of England, EsV. &c. which 
" had been latelypublifhed without incurring the 
^ cenfure of government." So; an inflammatory 
performance, acknowledged to be indecent and 
untrue, is not offenfive, becaufes it is not more 
virulent than fome other performances, which 
have efcaped the cenfure of government ! If this 
is not a new manner of arguing, it is at leaft an 
odd one. But this hand-bill had fomething 
more malicious in it, if not mere virulent, than 
even the inflammatory works above mentioned. 
They were more difficult to come at ; to have 
them they milt be bought. They contained 
fomething like reafoning, the fallacy of which 
the government was very fure would be detect- 
ed, by the good fenfe of thofe who took the 
pains to read .them. A hand-bill was a more 
commodious inurnment of fedition : It was 
calculated to have immediate effect. Befides, if 
there had been nothing offenfive in it, why did 
the club think proper to dilownit in fo ceremo- 
nious a manner ? They difowned it with the 
moft folemn affeverations, offered a reward for 
apprehending the author, and afterwards jufti- 
f.ed it as an inofTenfive thing. Here is a palpa- 
ble inconfiftency. The fad is, they perceived 
that this precious morfel of eloquence, in place 
of raifing a mob for them, was like to raife one 
againft them : they faw the ftorm gathering 
and in the moment of fear difowned the wri- 
ting. After the danger was over, feeing they 
could not exculpate' themfelves from the charge 
of having publilhed it, they defended it as an 
inoftenfive performance. 

C '9 ] 

The Doctor, in his juftificatory letter to the 
people of Birmingham, fays that the company 
were affembled on this occafion " to celebrate 
" the emancipation of a neighbouring nation from 
" tyranny, without intimating a defire of any thing 
ti more thznanimprovement of 'their own con/tit id ion ." 
ExcefTive modefty 1 Nothing but an improvement ? 
A la FRAN901SE of courfe ? However with ref- 
pe& to the church, as it was a point of con- 
fcience, the club do notfeem to havebeen altoge- 
ther fo moderate in their defigns. " Believe me," 
fays the Doctor, in the fame letter, " the church 
" of England, which you think, you arefupport- 
* 4 ing,has received a greater blow by this conduct 
" of yours than /and all my friends have ever aim- 
" ed at it." They had then it feems aimed a blow 
at the eitablifhed church, and were forming a 
plan for improving the conftitution ; and yet the 
Doctor, in the fame letter, twice expreftes his 
aftonifhment at their being treated as the ene- 
mies of church and date. In a letter to the 
fhidents of the college of Hackney he fays, a 
"Hierarchy,equally the bane of ' chrijlianity andra- 
" tional liberty, now confelfes its weaknefs ; and 
"be allured that you willfeeits complete reforma- 
" tionor its fall.' " And yet he has, theaffurance 
to tell the people of Birmingham, that their 
fuperiors have deceived them in repreieiit- 
ing him and his feci as the enemies of church 
and (late. 

Bur, fay they, we certainly exercifed the 
right of freemen in auembling together ; and 
even if our meeting had been unlawful, cogni- 
zance mould have been taken of it by the nia- 
C 2 

[ 20 ] 

giftracy : there cnn be no liberty where a fero- 
cious mob is fufFered to fuperfede the law. Ve- 
ry true. This is what the Doctor has been 
told a thoufand times, but he never would be- 
lieve it. He ftill continued to bawl out : " The 
" funfhine of reafon will aviurediy chafe away and 
" diHipate the mifts of darknefs and error ; and 
" when the maje'ly of the people is infulted, or 
" they feel themielves opprelled by any Jet of 
" men, they have the power to redrefs thegriev- 
" ance." So the people of Birmingham, feel- 
ing their majedy infulted by a Jet of men (xnd 
a very impudent fet of men too), who audaci- 
oufly attempted to perfuade them that they were 
" alljlaves and idolaters," and to feduce them 
from their duty to god and their countrv, role 
" to redrefs the grievance." And yet he com- 
plains ? Ah ! fays he, but, my good townfmen, 

" — , you miftake the matter : 

" For, in all fcruples of this nature, 
w No man includes him/elf nor turns 
" the point upon his own concerns." 
And therefore he fays to the people of Bir- 
mingham : " You have been milled." But 
had they fuffered themielves to be milled by 
himfelf into an infurredion againft the govern- 
ment ; had they burnt the churches, cut the 
throats of the clergy, and hung the magi Urates, 
military officers and nobility to the lamp pods, 
would he net have faid that they exerciied a 
facred right ? Nay, was not the very feftival, 
which was the immediate caufe of the riots, held 
exprefsly to celebrate icenes like thefe ? to cele- 
brate the inglorious triumphs of a mob ? The 
fourteenth of July was a day marked with the 

[ 21 3 

blood of the innocent,and eventually the deffcruc- 
tion of an empire. The events of that day mud 
ffrike horror to every heart except that of a de- 
iftical philofophet, and would brand with eter- 
nal infamy any other nation but France ; which 
thanks to the benign influence of the Rights of 
Man, has made fuch a progrefs in ferociouf- 
nefjS, murder, facrilege, and every fpecies of in- 
famy, that the horrors of the fourteenth of July 
are already forgotten. 

What we celebrate we muff, approve ; and 
does not the man, who approved of the events 
of the fourteenth of July, blufh to complain of 
the Birmingham riots ? " Happily," fays he to 
the people of Birmingham, "happily the minds 
" of Englifhmen have a horror for murder, and 
" therefore you did not, I hope, think of that; 
" though by your clamourous demanding me at 
" at the hotel, it is probable that, at that time, 
" fome of you intended me fome perfonal inju- 
" ry." Yes, Sir, happily the minds of Englifh- 
men have a horror for murder ; but who will 
fay that the minds of Englifhmen, or Englifh 
women either would have a horror for murder, 
if you had fucceeded in overturning their religi- 
on and constitution, and introducing your 
Frenchified fyftem of liberty ? The French were 
acknowledged to be the mod; polite, gentle, 
companionate, and hofpitable people in all Eu- 
rope : what are they now ? Let Lafayette, Brif- 
fot, Anacharfis Cloots, or Thomas Payne him- 
felf anfwer this queftion. 

Let us fee a little how mobs have acted un- 
der the famous goverment that the Doctor io 
much admires. 

r 22 ] 

I ihall not attempt a detail of the horrors 
corrnnittei by the cut-throat Jourdan and his 
afTociates in Provence, Avignon, Languedoc, 
and Roufillon. Towns and villages licked, 
gentleman's feats aa.l caftles burnt, and their 
inhabitants maffacred ; migiftrates infulted, 
beat, and imprifoned, fotnetimes killed; prifo- 
ners fet at liberty to cut the throats ofthofe they 
had already robbed. The exploits of this band 
oi patriots would fill whole volumes. They re- 
duced a great part of the inhabitants of the fi- 
nefl and mofl fertile country in the whole 
world, to a degree ofmifery and ruin that would 
never have been forgotten, had it not been fo 
far eclipfed fince, by the operation of what is, 
in " that devoted country," called the the law. 
The amount of the damages fuftained in proper- 
ty, was perhaps a hundred thoufand times as 
great as that fuftained by the Revolutionifls at 
Birmingham. When repeated accounts ot thefe 
murderous fcenes were laid before the National 
Affembly, what was the confequence ? what the 
redrefs? "We had our fears" faid Moniieur 
Gentil, "for the prifoners of Avignon, and for 
" the lives and property of the inhabitants of 
" that unhappy country ; but thefe fears are now 
" changed into a certainty : the prifoners are 
" releafed ; the country feats are burnt,and" 

Monfieur Gentil was called to order, and 

not fuffered to proceed ; after which thefe pre- 
cious "Guardians of the Rights of Man" paffed 
a cenfure on him, for having flandered the pa- 
triots. It is notorious that the chief of thefe cut- 
throats, jourdan, has fince produced his butche- 
ries in Avignon as a proof of his civj/m, and that 

L 2 3 ] 

he is now a ciiPiinguifhed character among the 
real friends of the Revolution. 

Does the Doctor remember having heard any- 
thing about the glorious atchievements of. the 
icth of Auguft, 1792? Has he ever made an 
eftimate of the property deftroyed in Paris on 
that and the following days? Let him compare 
the deftructk n that lollowed the fieps of that 
mob, with the -lofs of his boaftcd apparatus ; 
and when he has done this, let him tell us, if he 
tan, where he would now be, if the government 
of England had treated him and friends, as the 
National AiTembly did the fufferers in the riots 
of the 10th of Auguft. But, perhaps, he looks 
upen the events of that day as a glorious vic- 
tciy, a new emancipation, and ©f courfe will 
lay, that I degrade the Heroes in calling them a 
mob. I am not for difputing with him about a 
name ; he may call them the heroes of the 10th 
of Auguft, if he will : " The Heroes of the 
14th of July," has always been underftood to 
mean, a gang of blood thlrjiy cannibals, and I 
would by no means wifh to withold the title 
from thofe of the 10th of Auguft. 

Will the Doctor allow, that it was a mob that 
murdered the ftate piifoners from Orleans? or 
does he iufift upon calling that malTacre aa acl 
ofc'mfm, and the a&crs in it, the heroes of the 
1 2th of September ? But whether it was an act 
of civifm, a mailaere or a victory, or whatever it 
was, I cannot help giving it a place here, as I find 
it recorded by his countryman, Doclor Moore. 
" The mangled bodies,'' fays he, " were lying 
" in the flreet on the left hand as you go to the- 
" Chateau from Paris. Some of the lower fort of 


"the inhabitants ofVerfailles were looking on; 
:t the reft (truck with terror, were fhut up in their 
" fhops and houfes. The body of the Duke of 
" Briffac was pointed out, the head and one of 
'• the hands was cut off! a man flood near 
" fmoking tobacco, with his fvvord drawn, and 
e * a human hand ftuck on the point ! another 
" fellow walked carelefiy among the bodies 
" with an entire arm of another of the prifoners 
e ' fixed to the point of his fword ! A waggon 
" afterwards arrived, into which were thrown 
" as many of the flaughtered bodies as the 
" horfe.s could draw ! a boy of about fifteen 
fc< years of age was in the waggon, a/Ming to 
" receive the bodies as they were put in, and 
" packing them in the molt convenient manner, 
" with an air of as much indifference as if they 
" had been fo many parcels of goods ! One of 
" the wretches who threw in the bodies, and 
" who probably had aflifted in the maflacre, 
" faid to the fpeclators in praife of the boy's ac- 
" tivitv ; " See that little fellow there ; how bold 
f? he is! " 

" The affaflins of the prifoners were a party 
6< who came from Paris the preceding evening, 
f 4 moft of them inpoft chaifes, for that purpofe, 
" and who attacked thofe unhappy men while 
M they remained in the ftreet, waiting 'till the 
v * gate of the prifon which was prepared for 
** their reception,fhould be opened. The detach- 
w ment which had guarded the prifoners from 
" Orleans, flood fhameful and paffive fpe&ators 
** of the mafTacre, — The miferable prifoners be- 
" ingall unarmed, and fome of them fettered, 
*' could do nothing in their own. defence : they 

L 25 ] 

11 were mod of them Itabbed-and a few, whomt- 
" tempted refiftance, were cut down withfabres. 
" There never was a more barbarous and 
" daftardly aclion performed in the face of the 
" fun. — Gracious Heaven ! Were thofe barbari- 
" ties, which would difgracefavages, committed 
" by Frenchmen ! by that lively and ingenu- 
" ous people, whofe writings were fo much ad- 
" mired, whofe fociety has been fo much cour- 
" ted, and whofe manners have been fo much 
" imitated by all the neighbouring nations ? — 
" This attrocious deed, executed in the ftreets 
" of Verfailles, and the horrors committed in 
" the prifons of Paris, will fix indelible fr.ains 
". on the character of the French nation. It is 
" laid thofe barbarities revolted the hearts of 
" many of the citizens of Paris and Verfailles, 
" as much as they could thofe of the inhabitants 
<; of London or Winclfor. It is alio laid that 
" thofe maffacres were not committed by the 
" inhabitants of Paris or Verfailles, but by a 
" fet of hired aiTaffins.— But who hired thofe 
" afTaffins ? Who remained in fhameful ftupor 
" and daftardly inactivity, while their laws 
" were infulted, their prifons violated, and 
" their fellow citizens butchered in the open 
' : ilrcsts ? I do not believe, that from the 
" wickedeft gangs of highwav-men, houfe- 
" breakers, and pick-pockets, that infeft Lon- 
cc don and the neighbourhood, men could be 
" lelefted who could be bribed to murder in 
4 ' cold blood, fuch a number of their country- 
" men! — and if they could, lam convinced 
" th it no degree of popular delufion thev are ca- 

[ * ] 

" pable cf, no pretext, no motive whatever, 
" could make the inhabitants of London or 
" Windfor, or any town of Great Britain, fufter 
" fuch dreadful executions to be performed 
" within their walls." 

No ; I hope not : yet I do not know what 
might have been effected, by an introduction 
of the fame fyitem of anarchy, that has chan- 
ged the airy amiable French into a fet of the 
mod ferocious inhuman blood-hounds, that ever 
difgraced the human fhape. 

From fcenes like thefe, the mind turns for re- 
lief and confolation to the riot at Birmingham. 
That riot confidered comparatively with what 
Doctor Prieftley and his friends wifhed and at- 
tempted to flir up, was peace, harmony and 
gentlenefs. Has this man any reafon to com- 
plain ? He will perhaps fay, he did not approve 
of the French riots and maffacres ; to which I 
fhall anfwer, that he did approve of them. His 
public celebration of them was a convincing 
proof of this ; and if it were not, his fending his 
fon to Paris, in the midit of them, to requeft the 
honour of becoming a French citizen, is a proof 
that certainly will not be diipuied.* If then we 

r Another " bezarded afftertiott." Let us hear the Doc- 
tor :u_ain. " My fceond S.m, who was prefer,' both at the 
'• r'\ot, and the aff/c 1 , fdt mo-e i;\f ip:at;onitill. and wil- 
'*f liripj y liilcncd to a proposal to fettle in France; and 
" there hi- reception was but too vatrerinc." It i- u'eiefs 
to ascertain the time of this flattering reception, in order to 
I rove thai it m as in the midit of mafacres - for the revolu- 
tion Iv,.s hi en one continued fcene el' murder; and rapine ; 
but, ] • rftbereacki I as . -. of examining 

the Paris papers he will find that ony took place 

within a very few days of the time when Jourdan filled 
the Ice-houfc at Avignon with mangled bodies. 

[ V ] 

take a view of the riots of which the doctor is 
an admirer, and of thoie of which he expreffes 
his deteftation, we muft fear that he is very far 
from being that " friend of human happinefs," 
that the democratic fociety pretend to believe 
him. In fhort, in whatever light we view the 
Birmingham riots, we can fee no object that ex- 
cites our compaflion, except the inhabitants of 
the Hundred and the unfortunate Rioters them- 

The charge that the Doctor brings againft his 
country is, that it has not afforded him protection. 
It ought to be remarked here, that there is a ma- 
terial difference between a government that does 
not at all times atford fufficient protection, and one 
that is opprcjfivc. However, in his anfwer to the 
New- York addreffes, he very politely acquiefces 
in the government and laws of England being op- 
preflive alfo. Would he really prefer the proceed- 
ings of a revolutionary Tribunal to thole of a court 
of juftice in England ? Does he envy the lot of his 
colleagues Manuel, Lacroix, DantonandChabot? 
How would he look before a tribunal like that of 
the Princefs de Lambelle, for example ? When' 
this much lamented unfortunate lady was drag- 
ged before the villains that fat in a kind of 
mock judgment on her, they were drinking eau 
de vie, to the damnation of thofe that lav dead 
before them. Their fhirt fieeves were tucked up 
to their elbows their arms and hands, and 
even the goblets they were drinking out of, were 
befmeared with human blood ! I much queftion 
jf the allafiin's (tab, or even the Ia(t pang of 
death with all its concomitant bitternefs, was 
D 2 

E 28 J 

half fo terrible as the blood-freezing fight of 
thefe hell-hounds. Yet this was a court cfjuf 
tice, under that conftitution which " the friend 
" of human happinei's" wanted to impofe on 
his countrymen ! Paine in fpeaking of the En- 
glish government, fays exultingly, and as he 
fancies wittily : " they manage thofe things bet- 
"ter in France." I fancy, this boafting"reprefenta- 
" tive of twenty four millions of free men" would 
now be glad to exchange his pod of deputy for 
that of under (hoe black to the meaneft Laquay 
at the court of London ! Would ha not with joy 
exchange his cachot with the reversion of the 
.guillotine into the bargain, for the darkeif. cell 
in that very Baflile, the deftrucrion of which 
he has'fo triumphantly and heroically fung ? His 
fate is 'a good hint to thofe who change countries 
every 'time they crofs the fea. A man of all 
countries is a man of no country : and Jet all 
thofe citizens of the world remember, that he 
who has been a bad fubjeft in his own country, 
though from fome latent motive he may be well 
received in another, will never be either trujied 
or refpetted. 

The Doclor and his fellow labourers who 
have rarely emigrated to Botany Bay, have been 
continually crying out : " a reform of Parlia- 
ment." The famevifionarydelufion Teems tohave 
pervaded all reformers in all ages. They do not 
coniider what can be done, but what they think 
ought to be done. They have no calculating 
principle to direel them to difcover whether are- 
form \a ill coil them more than it is worth or not. 
They do not fit down to count the cod, ; but, 
the objecl: being, as they think, deferable, the 


29 ] 

means are totally difregarded. If the French re- 
formers had fit down to count the cod, I do not 
believe they were villainsor'ideots enough tohave 
purfued their plan as they did. To fave a tenth 
part of their income, they have given the whole, 
or rather it has been taken from them. To 
preferve the life of a perfon now and then unjuft- 
ly condemned, they have drenched the country 
with the blood of the innocent. Even the Baftile, 
that terrible monument of tyranny, which has 
been painted infuch frightful colours, contained 
but two i'late prifoners when it was forced by the 
mob ; and the reformers to deliver thefe two 
prifoners, and to guard others from a like fate, 
have eredled Baftiles in every town and in every 
ftreet. Before the Revolution there were only 
two (late prifoners, there are now above two 
hundred thou/and. Do thefe people calculate ? 
Certainly not. They will not take roan as 
they find him, and govern him upon principles 
eftablifhed by experience ; they will have him 
to be " afaultlefs monfterthat the world ne'er 
faw," and wifh to govern him according to a 
fyflem that never was, or can be, brought into 

Thefe waking dreams would be of no more 
confequence than thofe of the night, were they 
not generally purfued with an unjuiliflabte de- 
gree of obrtinacy and intrigue, and even villainy ; 
and did they not, being always adapted to flat- 
ter and inflame the lower orders of the people, 
often baffle every effort of legal power. Thus 
it happened in England in the reign of Charles 
thefirfl; and thus has it happened m France. 
Some trifling innovation always paves the way 

[ 3° J 

fo the fubverfion of a government. The ax in 
the forefl humbly befought a little piece of wood 
to make it a handle : the forefl confiding of fo 
many (lately trees, could not, without manifeft 
cruelty, refufe the " humble " requed ; but, 
the handleonce granted, the before-contemptible 
tool began to lay about it with fo much violence, 
that in a little time not a tree nor even fbrub 
was (landing. That a parliamentary reform 
was the handle by which theEnglifh revolution- 
ids intended to effect, the dedrudion of the con- 
flitution needs not be infilled on ; at lead if we 
believe their own repeated declarations. Paine 
and fome others clearly exprefTed themfelves pn 
this head : the Doclor was more cautious while 
in England, but, fafeiy arrived in his " afylum " 
he has been a little more undifguifed. He fays 
the troubles in Europe are the natural offspring 
of the " forms of government" that exid there ; 
and that the abufes (pring from the " artificial 
difimclions in fcciety.'* — I mud (lop here a mo- 
ment to remark on the impudence of this affer- 
tion. Is it not notorious that changing ihofe 
forms of government, and deflroyhig thofe didinc- 
•tions in fociety, has introduced all the troubles 
in Europe ? Had the form of government in 
France continued what it had been for twelve or 
thirteen hundred years, would thofe troubles ever 
have had an exiftence. To hazard an afiertion 
like this, a man mud be an idiot, or he mud think 
his readers fo. — It was then the form of the En- 
glim government, and thofe artificial didincli- 
cifls ; that is to fay, of king, prince, biftiop.^c. 
that he wanted to dedroy, in order to produce 
that c: other fyficm of liberty" which he had been 

C 3' 3 

fo long dreaming about. In his anfwer to the 
addrefs of " the republican natives of Great Bri- 
'" tain and Ireland, refident at New-York," he 
fays : " the wifdomand happinefs of republican 
" governments, and the evils refulting from 
" hereditary monarchial ones, cannot appear in 
" a ilronger light to you than they do to me ;" 
and yet this fame man pretended an inviolable 
attachment to the hereditary monarchial govern- 
ment of Great Britain ! Says he, by way of vin- 
dicating the principles of his club to the people 
of Birmingham " the firft toaft that was drunk, 
was, "the king and con/iitution" What 1 does he 
make a merit in England of having toafied that 
which he abominates in America ? Alas 1 Philo- 
sophers are but mere men ! 

It is clear that a parliamentary reform was not 
the object : an after game was intended, 
which the vigilance of government, and the 
natural good fenfe of the people happily pre- 
vented ; and the Doctor, difappointed and cha- 
grined, is come here to difcharge his heart of 
the venom it has been long colleding againil 
his country. He tells the Democratic fociety 
that he cannot promife to be a better fubjecT: of 
this government than he has been of that of 
Great Britain. Let us hope that he intends us 
an agreeable difappointment, if not, the fooner 
he emigrates back again the better. 

Syftem mongers are an unreasonable fpecies 
of mortals : time, place, climate, nature itlelf 
mud give way. They inuft have the fame go- 
vernment in every quarter of the globe ; when 
perhaps there are not two countries which can 
pofiibly admit of the fame form of goverment, at 

I &2 J 

the fame time. A thoufand hidden caufes, a 
thoufand circumftances and unforeseen events 
confpire to the forming of a government. It is 
ahvavs done bv little and little. When com- 
pleated, it prefents nothing like 2.fy/le?n ; nothing 
like a thing compofed, and written in a book. 
It is curious to hear people cite the American 
government as the fummit of human perfection 
•while they decry the Englifh ; when it is abfo- 
lutely nothing more than the government which 
the kings of England eftabliihed here, with fuch 
little modifications as were neceifary on account 
of the ftate of fociety and local circumftances. 
If then the Doctor is come here for a change of 
government and laws, he is the molt difappointed 
of mortals. He will hate the mortification to 
find in his " afylum" the fame laws as thofe from 
which he has fled, the fame upright manner of 
administering them, the fame punilhment of the 
reffo^ and the fame protection of the op- 
pretTed. In the courts of juflice he will every 
day fee precedents quoted from the Englifh law- 
books ; and (which to him may appear won- 
derful) we may venture to predict, that it will 
be -very long before they will be fupplanted by 
the bloody records of the revolutionary tribunal. 
Lethim comparethe governments of thcfe f:ates, 
and the es they havcpurfued, with what 

has patted under the boafied conftitution that 
he wiihed to introduce into England, and fee if 
he can find one fingle inilance of the moil 
didant refembiance. In the abolition of negro 
ilavery for example, the governments of the Uni- 
ted States have not ruined headlong into the 
mad plan of the National Convention. With 
much more humane views ; with a much more 

C 33 J 

fmcerc defire of feeing all mankind free and 
happy, they have, in fpite of clubs and foci-ties, 
proceeded with caution and juftice. In fliort, 
they have adopted, as nearly as poffible, conn' 
derin r circu-nftances and fituation, the fame 
measures as have been taken by the government 
which he abhors. He will have the further 
mortification to find, that the government here is 
not, any more than in England, influenced by 
the vociierarions of rihVwomen, or by the toojks 
and rcfohifions of popular focieties. He will > 
however, have one confolation , here as well as 
there, he will fmd, that the truly great, 
virtuous and incorruptible man at the head of 
government, is branded for an Arj/iocrat, by 
thofe noify gentry. 

Happinefs being the end of all good govern- 
ment, that which produces the moft is confe- 
quently the beft ; and comparifon being the 
only method of determining the relative value of 
things, it is eafy to fee which is preferable, the 
tyranny which the French formerly enjoyed, or 
the liberty and equality they at prefent labour 
under. If the.Dottor had come about a year 
fooner, he might have had the fatisfadion of 
being not only an ear, but an eye-wimefs alio, 
of fome of the blefled effects of this celebrated 
revolution. He might then have been regaled 
with that fight, fo delectable to a modern philo- 
foper ; — opulence reduced to mifery. 

The ftale pretence, that the league againft the 
French has been the caufe of their inhuman 
conduct to each other, cannot, bv the moit per- 
verfe fophiftry, be applied to the Ifland of St. 


L 34 J 

Domingo. That fine rich colony was mined,, 
its fuperb capital and villas reduced to alhes, 
cue half of its inhabitants maffacred, and the 
other half reduced to beggary, before an enemy 
ever appeared on the coaft. No : if is that fyl- 
tem of anarchy and blood that was celebrated 
at Birmingham on the 14th of July, 1791, that 
has been the caufe of. all this murder and de- 

Nor let the Doctor pretend that this could 
rot be forefeen. It was forefeerj and foretold 
too, from the very moment a part of the Depu- 
ties to the Slates General were permitted to 
call themfelves a national aiTembly. In proof 
of this, I could mention a dozen publications 
that came out under his own eye.- but I mall 
content mvfeif with giving a ihovt extract from 
a fpeech in the Britiih parliament, which is the 
more proper on this occahon,as it was delivered 
a few weeks before the period of thenots. 
S< The Americans," faid Mr. Burke, " have 
" what was efTentially necdT.iry for freedom ; 
" they have the phlegm of the good tempered 

" Engiifhmen- they were fitted for Republi- 

cc cans by a republican education. Their revo- 
iC lution wasnotbrout ht about by bafe and dege- 
<■ nerate crimes; nor did they overturn a govern- 
tc merit for the purpofes of anarchy ; but they raif- 
" ed a republics nearly repreicntingthc Britiih 
M o-overnmv nt as if was pciiible. They did not 
*'- run into the abfurdity of France, and by feiz- 
" inn; on the rights tfmhn, declare that the 
" nation was to govern the nation, and Prince 

25 ] 

44 Prettyman to govern Prince Prettyman.* 
(i There.are in Canada many of the ancient inha- 
" bitants ; will it be proper to give them the 
" French conltitution ? In my opinion there 
" is not a fingle circumftance that recommends 
" the adoption of any part of it, for the whole 
" is abominably bad — the production of folly 
" not wifdom— of vice, not virtue; it contains 
" nothing but extremes, as diftant from each 
" as the poles — the parts are in eternal oppo- 
•J fition to each other — it is founded on what 
" is called the rights of man, but to my convic- 
" tion it is founded on the wrongs of man, and 
" I now hold in my hand an example of its ef- 
. " feds on the French colonies — Domingo, 
" Guadaloupe, and the other French IHands, 
" were rich, happy, and pro wing in ftrength 
". and confequence in fpite of the three lad 
" diftreffing wars, before they heard of the 
" new doctrine of the rights of man ; but thefe 
rights were no fooner arrived at the Iflands, 
than any fpe&ator would have imagined that 
Pandora's box had been opened, and that Flell 
had yawned out difcorj, murder, and every 
-* mifchief ; for anarchy, confufion and blood- 
" flied raged every where ; it was a general 
c ' fummons for 

* I i" this gentleman could fee n pimi publj/hwi afew 
days ago, By viy eld frientfj. the Krw York Eerao- 
era tic Society, be would find that ue are improved ; 
and that Prince Prettyman is to govern Prince 
Prettyman nereis tvellasin Prance. "What'' fay tliey, 
" Hi'ill prcferve public liberty, but the toifdoiri of an *en- 
" 1 •■ y\ ■? In every free fl ate the Ibver 

xc is vefte.d in the people, and every individual is at once 
*' a iegijlalir and a pavcreipn* 
E 2. 



C 36 J 

" Black fpirits, and white, 

" Blue fpirits, and grey, 

" Mingle, mingle, mingle, 

" You that mingle may." 
" When the afiembly heard of thefe diforders, 
" they ordered troops to quell them; but it 
" proves that the troops have joined the infur- 
" gents, and murdered their commander. I 
" look on the revolution with horror and detef- 
" tation ; it is a revolution of confummate folly, 
" formed and maintained by every vice." 

But perhaps the Doctor s intenfc If udies ; "his 
" continual labours for the good of mankind," 
might not leave him time to perufe the debates 
of parliament ; however, we may fairly pre- 
fume that he read the letters addreflbd to him- 
felf ; and if fo, he has read the following paf- 
fage , " you think that a neighbouring nation 
" is emancipated from tyranny, and that a com- 
" pany of Englifhmen may laudably exprefs 
" their joy on the occafion. Were your premi- 
" fes true, I would allow your conclufion. But 
" let us wait the event. Philofophers mould 
" not be too credulous, or form their determi- 
" nations too rafhly. It is very pofiible that 
" all the magnificent fchemes of your auguft 
cc diet in France may be fucceeded by a ridicu- 
" lous, a villainous, or a bloody cataftrophc." 
Either he forefaw the confequences of the 
French Revolution or he did not'forcfee them : 
if he did not, he mud confefs that his penetra- 
tion was far inferior to that of his antagonifts, 
and even to that of the multitude of his coun- 
trymen ; for they all forefaw them. If he did 
forefee them, he ought to blufh at being called 

l m 

the " friend of human happincfs ;" for, to fore- 
fee fuch dreadful calamities and • ;; delibe- 
rate plan for bringing them upon hu countr 
muft have a diipohtion truely diabolical. Ifhe 
did not forefee them, he mud have au v: 
flanoing little fuperior to that of an idiot ; if he 
did, he muft have the heart of a Marat. Let 
him choofe* 

But it is pretty clear that he forefaw the con- 
fequences, or, at leaft, that he approves of 
tlwm ; for, as I have obferved above, he lent his 
fon into France, in the very mid ft of themaf- 
facres, to requeft the honor of becoming a 
French citizen ; and in his anfwer to the addref- 
fers at New York, he takes good care to exprefs 
his difaprobation of the war purfued by his coun- 
try (which he calls an infatuation) becaufe its 
manifeft tendency is to deftroy that hydra, that 
fyftem of anarchy which is the primary caufc. 
Befides, is not his emigration itfelf a convincing- 
proof, that his opinion liill remains the fame ? 
If he found himfelf miflaken, he would confeis 
his error ; at lcaft tacitly, by a change of con- 
duel. Has he done this ? No : the French re- 
volution is his fyftem, and fooner than not fee 
it eftabliihed, 1 much q;i.:ii ion if he would not 
wi f h pleafure ice I he niAiiaere of alj the human 

Fven fuppofe his intended plan of improve- 
ment had been the belt in the world inflead of 
the worft : the people of Fm *Iapd had 'ceitainly 
a right to reject it. He as an indubita- 

ble right, the right of thinking for pffrfrsj and 
yet lie will not permit the people of England to 
think for s. Pain at a 

C 38 ] 

v/hole nation wills, it has a Tight to do." Con- 
fequently, what a whole nation does not will, it 
has a right not to do. Rouffeau fays : " the ma- 
jority of a people has a right to force the red to 
be free ;" but even the " infane Socrates of the 
national affembly" has never, in all his abfurd 
reveries, had the folly to pretend, that a club 
cf diffenting malcontents has a right to force 2. 
whole nation to be free. If the Englim chofe 
to remain Haves, bigots, and idolators, as the 
Doctor calls them, that was no bufinefs of his : 
he had nothing to do with them. He fnould 
have let them alone ; and perhaps in due time, 
the abufes of their government would have come 
to that " natural termination ," which he trufts 
" will guard againfl future abufes/' But, no, 
faid the Doctor, I will reform you,. — I will en- 
lighten you, — I will will make you free. You 
mall not ! lay the people. But I will ! favs the 

Doctor. By , fay the r.eople, youfhallnot! 

tc And when Ahithopelyj:^ thai his counfel was 
" not followed, hefaddled his a/s, and arcfe, and 
u gat him home to his houfe, to his city, and put his 
" houfehold in order, and hanged himfelf and 
Ci died and was buried in the fepulchre of his 
tc father:' 

I now beg the reader's company in a flight re- 
view of the addreiTes, delivered to the Doctor by 
the feveral patriotic focieties at New York. * 

* I. An arldrefs from " ih Dcnrc-tHc 3cci<.fy " 
II. From the " 7 ai 
jij. From the " .s]! 

Jill, Frcmlhc" Republican of Great Britain 

<< aPA /■ efatl V." 

Tr.afc a'c&refffepj vrUh tfti dnfnrers ttt tl;rm, Irtvin^ nil 
".: -"■ :irt'<l in \he Gazettes, it will be ufelefs to on e 
them at kn-a-thherc. 

C 39 ] 

It is no more than juflice to fay of thefe ad : 
drefies, in the lump, that they are diflinguifhed 
for a certain barrennefs of thought and vulgarity 
of ftyle, which, were we not in poffeffion of the 
Do&or's anfwers, might be thought inimitable. 
If the parties were lefs known, one might be 
tempted to think that the addreiTers were dull 
by concert ; and that by way of retaliation, the 
Doctor was refolved to be as dull as they. At 
lead, if this was their defign, nobody will deny 
but they have fucceeded to admiration. 

" The governments of the old world," fay the 
Democratic Soicety, " are molt of them now 
" bafely combined to prevent the eftablifhment 
" of liberty in France, and to efFecT: the total 
" destruction of the rights of man." 

What ! The Rights of Man yet ? I thought 
that Liberty and Equality, the Rights of Man, 
and all that kind of political cant, had long been 
difcovered for the greateft Bore in nature. 
Are there people in this country, and people 
who pretend to poffefs a fuperior degree of fa- 
gacity too, who are dolts enough to talk about 
French Liberty, after what pailes under their eyes 
every day ? Is not every Frenchman in the 
United States, obliged to go to a juflice of the 
peace, every two or three months, to have a 
certificate of residence ? And muft he not have 
this certificate fworn to and figned, by four in- 
habitants befides the magistrate ? And muft 
he not pay for this too? And if he fails in 
any part of this flavifh ceremony, or goes into 
Canada or Florida, is he not marked out for the 
Guilliotine? An Engliihman may come when 
he will, flay as long as he pleafes, go wher-e he 

wiLl, !1 to his own coun- 

try, without finding any law of prcfcription, or 
coniiication, iffuc-d againit him or his property. 
Which has molt liberty? 

I thought no one would dun our ears with 
French liberty, after fhe decree which obliges eve- 
ry merchant, under pain of the Guilliotine, to 
make a declaration of all his property in foreign 
countries, and to give up his right and title of 
fuch property to the convention ; and not only 
to make a declaration of his own, but of 
neighbour's property alio, under the fame p( 
ry ! It has long been cufromary to exprefs a 
d( inflation of the tyranny and cruelty of the ln- 
quifuion : but the Inquifuion, in the height of 
■ verity, was never half (b tyrannical as this 
decree. This is the boafted "gallic liberty/* 
Let us hear their own definition of this liberty. 
tc Liberty," fays Barrere, in his report to the 
National Convention, on the 3d of January 1794, 
" Liberty, my dear fellow citizens, is a privi- 
" lodged and general creditor ; not only has 
" fiie a right to our property and pcrfons, but to 
" our talents and courage, and even to our 
"'- iboi'gkts !." Oh Liberty! What a metamor- 
raoris haft thou undergone in the hands of thefe 
political juglers ! 

If this be liberty, may God in his mercy con- 
tinue me the mod abject Have. If this be liber- 
ty, who will fay that the Eagliih did not do well 
in reiccliag the Doctor's plan for making them 
free ? The Democrats of New York, accufe the 
allies of being combined to prevent the eftal 
ment of liberty in France, and to deftroy the 
rights of man : when it is notorious that the 

[ 4i ] 

French themfelves have banifhed the very idea 
of the thing from amongft them ; that is to fay, 
if they ever had an idea of it. Nay, the author 
of the right* of man, and the authorefs of the 
■is of women, are at this moment flawing in 
a dirty dungeon, not a hundred paces fronfthe 
turn fandorum of liberty and equality ; and 
the poor, unfortunate Goddefs* herfelf is guillio- 
tined ! So much for liberty and the rights of 

. The Tammany fociety comes forward in boaft- 
ing of their " venerable ancefiors," and, fays the 
Doctor in his anfwer : " Happy would our 

rrable aaceftors have been to have 
found, &c." What! Were they the 

s anceflors too ? I fuppofe he means in a 
figurative fenfe. But certainly, gentlemen, 
you made a faux pas in talking about your an- 
ceftors at all. It is alv/ays a tender fubject, and- 
ought to be particularly avoided by a body of 
men " who difdain the (hackles of tradition." 
You fay that, in the United States, " there 
iC exiils afentiment of free and candid enquiry, 
" which difdains the fhackles of tradition, pre- 
c; paring a rich harved of improvement and the 
" glorious triumph of truth. " Knowing the 
religious, or rather irreligious, principles of 
the perfon to whom this fentence was addreffed 
it is eafy to divine its meaning. But, without 

* Madame Hebert, who had the honor of reprefcntino- 
this Deity, and who received for a coufiderable time, the 
c.or.aions and incenfe of the devout Parifians, was guillio- 
tined not \qm ago. It is impoffible to fay forwhaS she was 
ited, as the court by which fhe was tried do not wafte 
their precious time in committing their proceedings to 
writing. b 


C 44 "J 

to £ay, Idolatrous OhtiftVans" Idolatrous Chrif- 
tians ! It is the flrft time I believe thefe two 
words were ever joined together. Is this the 
Ianguageof a man who wanted only toleration,m 
a country where the eftablifhed church, and the 
moft part of the diffenters alfo, are profeffedly 
trinitarians ? He will undoubtedly fay that the 
people of this country are idolators too, lor 
there is not one out of a hundred at moft, who 
does not firmly believe in the doclrine of the 

Such a man complains of perfecution with a 
very ill grace. But fuppofe he had been per- 
fecured for a mere matter of opinion ; it would 
be only receiving the meafure he has meted to 
others. Has he not approved of the unmerciful 
perfecution of the unfortunate and worthy part 
of the French clergy ; men as far furpafling him 
in piety and utility as in fuffering ? They did 
not want to coin a new religion ; they wanted 
only to be permitted to enjoy, without interrup- 
tion, the one they had been educated in, arid 
that they had fworn in the moil folemn manner, 
to continue in to the end of their lives. The 
Do&or fays in his addrefs to the Methodifts ; 
" you will judge wether I have not reafon and 
" fcripture on my fide. You will at leaft be con- 
" vinced that / have fo prfuadedmyfelf \ and you 
" cannot but refpeci a real lover of truth, and 
" a defire to bring others into it, even in the man 
44 who is unfortunately in an error." Does 
not this man blufh at approving of the bafe, 
c6wardly and bloody perfecutions that have 
been carried on againft a fet of men, who erred, 
if they did err at all, from an excefs of con- 

[ 4« ] 

French themfelves have banifhcd the very idea 

of the thing from amongft them ; that is to fay, 

if they ever had an idea of it. Nay, the author 

of the rights of man, and the ailthorefs of the 

rights of women, are at this moment ftarving in 

a dirty dungeon, not a hundred paces from the 

fanclum fanclorum of liberty and equality ; and 

rhe poor unfortunate Goddefs* herfelf is guillio- 

tined ! So much for liberty and the rights of 


The Tammany fociety comes forward in boafr.- 
ing of their " venerable anceftors" and, fays the 
Doctor in his anfwer : " Happy would our 
•' venerable anceftors have been to have 
" found, &c." What! Were they the 
Doctor's anceftors too ? I fuppofe he means in a 
figurative fenfe. But certainly, gentlemen, 
you made a faux pas in talking about your an- 
ceftors at all; It is always a tender fubjecl:, and 
ought to be particularly avoided by a body of 
men " who difdain the ihackles of tradition." 
You fay that, in the United States, " there 
Ci exifts afentiment of free and candid enquiry, 
j? which difdains the fhackles of tradition, pre- 
* s paring a rich harveft of improvement and the 
" glorious triumph of truth." Knowing the 
religious, or rather irreligious, principles of 
the perfon to whom this fentence was addreffed, 
it is eafy to divine its meaning. Bat, without 

* Madame Hebert, who had the honor of reprefenting 
this Deity, and who received for a confiderable time, the 
adorations and incenfe of the devout Parifians, was guillio- 
tined not long ago. It is impoflible to fay for what (he was 
executed, as the court by which the was tried do not wafte 
their precious time in committing their proceedings to 


[ 44 ] 

to&y, Uola l rois £fyiftltmu t} Idolatrous Chris- 
tians! It is the firft time I believe thefe two 
words were ever joined together. 1$ this the 
language of a man who wanted only toleration,in 
a country where the eftablifhed church, and the 
1510ft part of the diffenters alfo, are profefledly 
trinit.i-i.rn ? He will undoubtedly fay that the 
people of this country are idolaters too, for 
there is not one out of a hundred, at moft, who 
does not firmly believe in the doctrine of the 

Such a man complains of perfecution with a 
very ill grace. But fuopofe he had been per- 
fected for a mere matter of opinion ; it would 
be only receiving the meafare he has meted to 
others. Has he not approved of the unmerciful 
perfecution of the unfortunate and worthy part 
of the French clergy ; men as far fuTpafiing him 
in piety and utility as in fullering ? They did 
not want to coin a new religion ; they wanted 
only to be permitted to enjoy, without interrup- 
tion, the one they had been educated in, and 
that they had fworn in the moft folemn manner, 
to continue in to the end of their lives. The 
Doctor fays in his addrefs to the Methodifls ; 
" you will judge whether I have not reafon and 
:; fcripture on my fide. You will at leaft be con- 

c vinced that I have fo ; \'myfc!f; and you 

" cannot but refpect a real lover of truth, and 

' a ds lire to bring others into it} even in the man 
" who is unfortunately in an error." Does 
not this man blulh at approving of the bafe, 
cowardly and bloody perfections that have 
been carried on again!! a fet of men, who erred, 
if they did err at all, from an excels of con- 

[ 45 ] 

fdenlioufnefs ? He talks of perfection, and 
puts on the mockery of woe : theirs has been 
perfection indeed. Robbed, dragged from 
their homes, or obliged tc hide from the fight 
of man, in continual expectation of the aflaffin's 
flab ; fome tranfported, like common felons, 
for ever ; and a much greater number butcher- 
ed by thofe to whofe happinefs their lives had 
been devoted, and in that country that they loved 
too well to difgrace by their apoftacy ! How 
gladly would one of thofe unfortunate conscien- 
tious men have efcaped to America, leaving for- 
tune, friends and all behind him ! And how 
different has been the fate of Dodor Prieftley ! 
Ah, Gentlemen! do not let us be deceived by 
falfe pretenders : the manner of his emigration 
is, of itfelf, a fufficient proof that the ftep was 
not neceffary, to the enjoyment of " protection 
from violence." 

You fay, he has " long difinterefiedly labour- 
" ed for 'his country." 'Tis true be fays fo ; 
but we mud not believe him more difinterdtcd 
than other reformers. If toleration had been all 
he wanted; if he had contented himfelf with the 
permiffion of fpreadinghis doctrines, he would 
have found this in England, or in almoft any 
other country, as well as here. The man that 
wants only to avoid perfecution, does not make 
a noify and faftidious difplay of his principles,or 
attack with unbridled indecency, the religion or 
thecountry inwhichhe lives. He whoavoids per- 
fecution is feldom perfecuted. 

f* The lifted ax, the agonizing wheel, 

'•' Luke's iron crown and I amien's bed of Iteel, 

C 43 J 

every attempt to debafe chriftianity, in what e 
fhape, and under whatever difguife it may ap- 

In the addrefs of " the republican natives of 
u Great Britain and Ireland, refident at New 
" York," we find a very extraordinary paifage 
indeed. But, before we fay any thing about this 
addrefs, it will not be amifs to fay a word or 
two about the addreflers. I believe one might 
venture to fay, that there are but very few natives 
of Ireland among them; becaufe, the emigrants 
from that country, being generally engaged in 
agricultural purfuits from their firrt: arrival here, 
have not the time to form themfelves into poli- 
tical focieties : and the words " Great Britain" 
might probably have been fupplied by one word. 
However, as the gentlemen have not thought 
this word worthy of a place in their addrefs, I 
can by no means think of introducing it here. 
But let us fee what they fay of themfelves ! 
" After a fruitlefs oppojltion to a corrupt and 
*' tyrannical government, many of us, like you, 
*• fought freedom and protection in the United 
" States of America* We look back on our 
'- ; native country with pity and indignation, at 
" the outrages that humanity has fuitained in 
■•- the perfons of the virtuous Mitir and his pa- 
" triotic affociates," We may then fairly fup- 
'pofe, that thefe " republican natives of Great 
: *< Britain and Ireland" can be no other than the 
members of that renowned convention of which 
the '-'■'virtuous Muir," who is now fortunately 
on his paflage to Botany Bay, was prefident. 

The paffage of their addrefs, alluded to above^ 
is as follows ; "Participating in the many blef- 

L 45 ] 

fcientioufnefs ? He talks of perfection, and 
puts on the mockery of woe : theirs has been 
perfection indeed. Robbed, dragged from 
their homes, or obliged to hide from the fight 
of man, in continual expectation of the affamn's 
flab ; fome tranfported, like common felons, 
for ever ; and a much greater number butcher- 
ed by thofe to whofe happinefs their lives had 
been devoted, and in thatcountry that they loved 
too well to difgrace by their apoftacy ! How 
gladly would one of thofe unfortunate confcien- 
tious men have efcaped to America, leaving for- 
tune, friends and all behind him ! And how 
different has been the fate of Bodor Prieftley ! 
Ah, Gentlemen! do not let us be deceived by 
falfe pretenders : the manner of his emigration 
is, of itfelf, a fuffkient proof that the ftep was 
not neceffary, to the enjoyment of " protection 
from violence. 551 

You fay, he has " long difinterepdlj labour- 
« ed for his country." 'Tis true he fays fo ; 
but we mull not believe him more diiinterefted 
than other reformers. If toleration had been all 
he wanted; if he had contented himfelf with the 
permiflion ot fpreading his dodrines, he would 
have found this in England, or in almoft any 
other country, as well as here. The man that 
wants only to avoid perfection, does not make 
a noify and faliidious difplay of his principles,or 
attack with unbridled indecency, the religion of 
thecountry inwhichhe lives. He whoavoids per- 
fecution is feldom perfecuted. 

» The lifted ax, the agonizing wheel, 

« Luke's iron crown and Damkn's bed of fteel, 

C 4« ] 

every attempt to debafe chriftianity, In whatever 
fnape, and under whatever difguife it may ap- 

In the addrefs of "the republican natires of 
" Great Britain and Ireland, refident at New 
" York," we find a very extraordinary parage 
indeed. But, before we fay any thing about this 
addrefs, it will not be amifs to fay a word or 
two about the addreffers. I believe one might 
venture to fay, that there are but very few natives 
of Ireland among them; becaufe, the emigrants 
from that country, being generally engaged in 
agricultural purfuits from their firit arrival here, 
have not the time to form themfelves into poli- 
tical focieties : and the words " Great Britain" 
might probably have been fupplied by one word. 
However, as the gentlemen have not thought 
this word worthy of a place in their addrefs, I 
can by no means think of introducing it here. 
But let us fee what they fay of themfelves : 
" After a fruitkfs opposition to a corrupt and 
" tyrannical government, many of w, like you y 
66 fought freedom and protection in the United 
" States of America. We look back on our 
"native country with pity and indignation, at 
" the outrages that humanity has fuftained in 
"the perfons of the virtuous Muir and his pa- 
" triotic auociates." We may then fairly fup- 
% that thefe "-republican natives of Great 
"Britain and Ireland" can be no other than the 
members of that renowned convention of which 
the "virtuous Muir," who is now fortuna 
on-his paflage to Botany Bay, was prefident. 

The paflage of their addrefs, alluded to above, 
is as follows ; "Participating in the many bid- 

L 49 ] 

" fings, which the government is calculated to 
" infure, we are happy in giving it this proof of 
" our refpectful attachment. We are only griev- 
Ci ed, that a fyftem of fuch beauty and excellence 
" mould be at all tarnijhed by the exiftence of 
" flavery in any form ; but, as friends to the 
Ci equal rights of man, we muft be permitted 
" to fay, that we wifh thefe rights extended to 
" every human being, be his complexion what it 
" may. We however look forward with pleaf- 
" ing anticipation to a yet more perfecl Jlate of 
" fociety ; and from that love of liberty which 
" forms fo diliinguiflied a trait in the American 
" character, are taught to hope that this loft* 
" this worfi d'f grace to a free government, will 
" finally and for ever be done away. " So ! 
Thefe gentlemen are hardly landed in the United 
States before they begin to cavil againft the 
government, and to pant after a more perfecl 
fiate of Society ! If they have already difcovered 
that the fyftem is tarnified by the very lafi and 
ivorji difgrace of a free government, what may we 
not reasonably expect from their future re- 
fearches ? If they,with their virtuous Prefident ? 
had been landed in the fouthern dates, they 
might have lent a hand to finifli the great 
work, fo happily begun by citizens Santhonax 
and Polverel. They have caught the itch of 
addreffing, petitioning and remonftrating in 
their own country ; let them feratch themfelves 
into a cure ; but let them not attempt fpread- 
ing their diforder. They ought to remember, 
I iiat they are come here " to feek freedom and 
" protection " for themfelves, and not for others. 
When the people of thefe Hates arj^iiaody 

C 5° ] 

[otal abolition of negro flavery, they will make 
a fhift to fee the propriety or adopting the mea- 
fure without the amitance of thefe nothern 
lights. In the mean time, as the convention 
cannot here enter on their legiflative functions, 
they may amufe themfelves with a fable written 
for their particular ufe. 

The Pot -Shop, a Faele. 

In a pot-thop well flocked with ware of all 
forts, a difcontented ill formed pitcher un- 
luckily bore the fway. One day after the mor- 
tifying neglect of feveral cuftomers, " gentle- 
men," faid he, addrelTing himfelf to his brown 
brethren in general, " gentlemen, with your 
<c permiffion, we are a fet of tame fools, without 
" ambition, without courage : condemned to 
" the vileit ufes, we fuffer all without murmur- 
" -ing. Let us dare to declare ourfelves, and 
" we fhall foon fee the difference. That fuperb 
" ewer, which, like us, is but earth ; thofe 
c ' gilded jars, vales, china, and in fhort al! 
P thofe elegant nonfenfes, whofe colours and 
" beauty have neither weight nor folidity, mult 
" yifeld to our itrength and give place to our 
45 fupcrior merit. " 

This civic harangue was received with peals 
of applaufe, and the pitcher ( chofen prefident ) 
became the organ of the affembly. Some, 
however, more moderate than the relt, attemp- 
ted to calm the minds of the multitude. But 
all thofe which are called jordans or chamber 
pots, were become intractable. Eager to vie 
with the bowls and cups, they were impatient 

C s*. ] 

iilmoft to madnefs to quit their obfcure abodes, 
to mine upon the tabic, kifs the lip and 
ornament the cup-board. 

In vain did a wife water jug ( fome fay it 
was a platter ) make them a long and furious 
difcourfe upon the peacefulnefs of their voca- 
" tion. Thofe, *' fays he, " who are deflined to 
cc great employments are rarely the moit happy. 
" We are all of the fame clay, tis true ; but he 
4C who made us, formed us for different func- 
" tions. One is for ornament, another for ufe. 
" The pods the leail important are often the 
iC moil neceffary. Our. employments arc ex- 
" tremely different, and fo are our talents. " 

This had a wonderful effect ; the moft ftupid 
began to open their ears : perhaps it would 
have fucceded, if a greafe pot had not cried out 
with a decifive tone : " You reafon like an afs ; 
ci to the devil with you and your filly lef- 
< : fons." 

Now the fcale was turned again : all the 
I of jordans, pans and pitchers applauded 
the fuperior eloquence and reafoning of the greafe 
■pot. la. fhort, they determined on the enter- 
prize ; but a difpute arofe who mould be chief: 
:-\U would command and none obey. It was 
then you might have heard a clutter : pots, pans 
and pitchers, mugs, jugs and jordans, all put 
themfelves in motion at once ; and fo wifely 
and with fo much vigour were their operations 
conducted that the whole was foon changed — 
not into china, but rub 

Let us leave the application of this fable to 
thofe for whom it is intended, and come to the 
addref* of " the affociated teachers in the city 
" of Ne-.v-YMi:,. " 

G 2 

[ 52 j 

From the profeffion of thefe gentlemen, one- 
would have wifhed not to find them among the 
Doctor's addreffers ; and it will be for thofe who 
employ the " affociated teachers " to judge, 
how far their approbation and praife of the 
writings of fuch a man, is a proof of their 
being calculated for " the arduous and important 
" talk of cultivating the human mind. " * 
They very civilly invite the do&or to affift them 
to "form the man ; " and, in his anfwer, he 
feems to hint that he- may poflibly accept the 
invitation. All I can fay on this matter, is, if 
he fhould embrace this profeffion, I hope he 
will be exactly aifuccefsful in forming the man, 
as he has been in reforming him. 

In the anfwer to the " affociated Teachers, " 
the Doctor obferves, that, clajfes of men, as well 
" as individuals, ,are apt to form too high ideas of 
" their own importance''' Never was a jufter 
obfervation than this, and never was this ob- 
fervation more fully verified than in the parties 
themfelves. The Doctor's felf importance is 
fufHciently depicted in the quotation that I have 
given from his letter to the people of Birming- 
ham ; and as for the " affociated- teachers, " 
how familiarly foever they may talk of " the 

* I have been informed, that thefe affocisiiSi brethren of 
the birch complain of my attacking them in the dark ; but 
]et them lay their hands to their hearts, and lay, if they 
can, that I fight more unfair than they do, when they dis- 
charge their ill-humour on a poor little trembling wretch, 
whole pitiful look would foften the heart of a tiger. Hbw- 
aver. 1 ceafe the inglorious combat : I contefs it is not fair 
to attack them with a pen They know how to write with 
s rod onlv ; and ! dare fay their anfwer lo my obfovn- 
fjons on their addrefs is ftifl legible on the bfcek-fid 
their unfortunate pupils. 

[ 53 ] 

" intriguing politics and vitiating refinements 
" of the European World, " I mull fay, I 
think, they know but little of what panes in 
that world ; or they never would have larded 
with fuch extravagant eulogiums, produ&ions,, 
which, in general, have been long exploded. 

With refpea to the Doctor's metaphyseal 
reveries, or, in other words, his fyftem oi infi- 
delity, I mall leave to himfelf the talk of expo- 
fiijg that to the deteitation of Americans, as it 
has°long been to that of the Englifh. * Of his 
fcientific produdions, I propofe, in a little time, 
to give the public a fhort reveiw; f meanwhile I 
refer the curious, readerto the publications ofthe 
royal fociety, of 1 791 and 1792, and to Do dor 
Bewley-'s treatife on air. He will there fee his 
fyltem of chemiftry and natural philofophy de- 
teaed, expofed and defeated ; and the " ccle- 
64 brated philofopher " himfelf accufed and 
conviaed of plagiarifm. § He will there find 
the key to the following fentence : « The 
" patronage to be met with, in monarchical go- 
" vernments, is ever capricious, and as often 
" employed to bear down merit as to promote 
" it, having for its objea, not fcience, or any 
" thing, ufeful to mankind, but the mere repu- 
" tation of the patron, who is feldom any judge 
" of fcience. " \ This is the language of every 
foured negleaed author, from a forry ballad 

* He has made a pretty good beginning already, sg 

fee by and by. . . 

f The Doftor has favecj me the trouble or doing this. _ 
•:avc a little patience, reader, and you lhall be fatis- 

t TwAvas addreiea to the Fhilofophicnl facie 
hia. \S e {hall fee all this unravelled by an I 

C 54 ] 

monger to a doctor with half a dozen initials at 
the end of his name. 

As to his talents as a writer we have only 
10 open our eyes to be convinced that they arc 
lar below mediocrity. His ftyle is uncouth 
and fuperlatively diffufe. Always involved in 
yainulia^ every fentence is a firing of parenthe- 
fifes, in finding the end of which, the reader is 
lucky if he does not lofe the propofition they 
were meant to illufl rate. In fhort, the whole of 
his phrafeology is extremely difguftiiig ; to 
which may be added, that even in point of 
grammar he is very often incorrect. 

As a proof of what I have here afTertcd, I 
could give a thoufand fentences from his wri- 
tings ; but I chooie one or two from his an- 
fwers to the addreffers, as thele pieces are in 
every body's hands ; and, not to criticife unfair- 
ly, I fhall take the firit fentence I come at. It 
runs thus : 

" Viewing with the deepeft concern, as you 
*' do, the profpect. that is now exhibits 
" Europe, thofe troubles which are the natural 
" offspring of their forms of government, ori- 
" ginating indeed in the fpirit of liberty, but 
" gradually degenerating into tyrannies, equal- 
*' ly degrading to the rulers and the ruled , I 
" rejoice in finding an aii'ylum from perfecu- 
^ tion in a country in which thofe abufes have 
i: come to a natural termination, and produced 
" another fvtiem of liberty, founded on fuch 
" wife principles^ as I trull, will guard againfl: 
-• all future abides ; thofe artificial diftinctions 
" in focicty, from which they fprung, being 
t; completely eradicated, tjiat pro teuton from 

C 55 ] 

61 violence, which laws and government promife 
<£ in all countries, but which I have not found 
M in my own, I doubt not I fhall find with you, 
" though I cannot promife to be a better fubjed 
w of this government, than my whole conduct 
" will evince that I have been to that of Great 
" Britain." 

This is neither the ftyle pcricdique, nor the 
fiyle coupe, it is I prefumethe Jlyle cniortille : for 
one would certainly think that the author had 
racked his imagination to render what he had 
to fay unintelligible. This fentence of monftrous 
length is cut afunderin the middle by a femico- 
lon, which, except that it fervesthe weary rea- 
der by way of half way houfe, might be placed 
in any other part of the fentence to, at leah\ 
equal advantage. In fact., this is not a fentence ; 
it is a rigmarole ramble, that has neither be- 
ginning nor ending, and conveys to us no idea 
of any thing but the author's incapacity. 

" Viewing with the deeped concern as you 
" do, the profped that is now exhibited in Eu- 
" rope, thofe troubles which are the natural off- 
" fpring of THEiRforms of government." What, 
in the name of goodnefs, does this mean ? — 
Troubles is the only antecedent that can be found 
to their, and the neceifary conclufion is, troubles 
have their forms of government. '" 

The dodor fays, in his anfwer to the Tarn- 
many fociety : " Happy would our venerable 
" anceftors', as ycu juftly call them, have been, 
« to have found America fuch a retreat to 
« them." It may perhaps be ufeful to the 
learned Doftor to know, that he ought ft rrav : 

C .5*5 ] 

faid u Happily would our venerable anceftors, 
" as you juftly call them, have been, tofmd 
" America, &c." 

I grant that there is great reafon to believe, 
that the Doclor was refolved to be as dull as his 
addreffers ; but I affert that it is impoffible for a 
perfon accuflomed to commit his thoughts to 
paper with the frnalleft degree of tafle or cor- 
rectnefs, to fall into fuch grofs folecifms, or to 
tackphrafes together in fuch an awkward home, 
fpun manner. In fhort, he cannot be fit for 
even the poft of caftigator ; and therefore it is 
to be hoped that the " affociated teachers'' will 
not leifen their " importance" by admitting 
him amongft them ; that is to fay, except it be 
as a pupil. 

There are many things that aftonifh \x$ in the 
addrelfes, amongft which the companion that the 
addreffers exprefs for that " infatuated" and 
** devoted country" Great Britain, certainly is 
not the leafr. 

The Democratic fociety, with a hatred againft 
tyranny, that would have become the worthv 
nephew of Damien,*er the great Marat himfelf, 
fey : " The multiplied opprefiions which cha- 
■" rafter ife that government, excite in us, the 
" moil painful fenfations and exhibit a fpeda- 
" cle as difgufting in itfelf as dishonorable to 
" the Britifh name." 

And what a tender affectionate concern do 
the fons of Tammany exprefs for the poor dif- 
treiled unfortunate country of their " venerable 
" anceflors." " A country," fav thev, " al- 

* RjdbefipieiTe. 

[ 57 1 

> now prefenting a profped frightful to 
" the eye of humanity, yet once the nurfe of 
" faiences, of arts, of heroes, and of freemen, a 
" country which although at prefent apparent- 
" ly de-voted to dc/truclion, we fondly hope may 
" yet tread back thefteps of infamy and ruin, and 
" once more rife confpicuom among the free nations 
" of the earth." 

But of all the addreffers none feem fo zealous 
on this fubject as " the republican natives of 
Great Britain and Ireland. " " While, " fay 
they, " we look back on our native country 
" with emotions of pity and indignation, at the 
< ; outrages human nature has fuftained, in the 
" perfons of the virtuous Muir and his patrio- 
" tic affociates ; and deeply lament the fatal 
nthy into which our countrymen have fallen : 
e deure to be thankful to the great author. 
" of our being, that we are in America and 
" that it has pleafed him, in his wife provi- 
tc dcnce, to make thefe United States an Afy- 
" lum, not only from the immediate tyranny of 
tc the Britifh government, but alfo from thofe 
" impending calamities, which its increafing 
" defpotifm, and multiplied iniquities, muft 
" infallibly bring down on a deluded and op- 
" preffed people. " What an enthufiaflic 
warmth is here ! Wo folemn-league-and-cove- 
nant prayer, embellifhed with the nafal fweet- 
nefs of the conventicle, was ever more Eaffeft- 

To all this the Doclor very pitionfly echoes 
k " figh for f :;;!), and groan for groan ; and 
" when the fountain of their eyes is dry, his 
u fupplies the place and weeps for both. 


[ 5« J 

There is fomething fo pathetic, fo irrefifta- 
bly moving in all this, that a man mud have a 
hard heart indeed to lead it, and not burft into 

In fpeaking of Monarchies, it has often been 
lamented that the fovcreign fcldom, or never 
hears the truth • and much afraid I am, that this 
is equally applicable to democracies. What 
court fycophants are to a prince, demagogues 
are to a people ; and the latter kind of parafites 
is by no means lefs dangerous than the former; 
perhaps more fo, as being more ambitious and 
more numerous. God knows, there were too 
many of this description in America, before the 
arrival of Doctor Prieftley : I can therefore fee 
no reafen for headings and addreffings on ac- 
count of the acquifition. 

Every one mud obferve, how the doctor ban 
fallen at once into the track of thofe, who were 
already in poiiellion of the honourable poft. 
Finding a popular prejudice prevailing againft 
his country, and not pofieiling that patriot cart- 
las^ which is the characterise of his country- 
men, he has not been afhamed to attempt making 
his court by flattering that prejudice. I rrani 
that a prejudice againft this nation is not only 
c-xcufable, but almofl commendable in Ameri- 
cans; but the misfortune is, it expofes them to 
deception, and makes them the fport of 
every intriguing adventurer. Suppofe it be the 
intereft of Americans that Great Britain mould 
be ruined and, even annihilated, in the prefent 
contelt ; it can never be their intereft to believe 
that this defirable object is already nearly cr 
quite accomplilhed, at a time when fhe is become 
more formidable than ever, in every quarter of 

[ 59 J 

the globe. And with refpect to the internal 
fituation of that country, we ought not to fuf- 
fer ourfelves to be deceived by " gleanings 
" from morning chronicles, or Dublin ga- 
" zettes :" for, if we infift that newfpaper re- 
port is the criterion by which we ought to ju< 
of the governments, and the (fate of other coun- 
tries,we mull allow the fame meafure to foreign- 
ers with refpecl to our own country ; and then 
what mud the people of England think of the 
government of the United States, upon reading 
a page or two from the flovenly pen of Agricola. 
" It is charitable," fays this democrat, " It 
" is charitable to believe many who iigned the 
" conftitution, never dreamed of the meafures 
" taking place, which alas ! we now experience. 
" By this double government, we are involved 
" in unncceffary burdens which neither we nor 
" our fathers ever knew. Such a monfier of a 
" government has feldom ever been known on 
" earth. We are obliged to maintain two go- 
" vernments, with their full number dF officers 
" from head to foot. Some of them receive 
" fuch wages as hfever were heard of before in 
** any goverment upon earth ; and all this be- 
<l (lowed on Ariftocrats for doing next to noth- 
" ing. A bleifed revolution ! a bleffed revolu- 
lt tion indeed ! but farmers, mechanics and 
" labourers have no (hare in it, we are the affes 
" who mull have the honor of paying them 
tc all without any adequate fervice. Now let 
" the impartial judge whether our government 
" taken collecYtvely, anfvvers rhe great end of 
" protecting ourperfons and property ! Or whether 
" it is not rather calculated to drain us of our 
" monev, and give it to men who have not 

[ 6o ] 

" rendered adequate fervice for if. Had an 
" inspired prophet told us the things which 
" our eyes fee,, in the beginning of the revolu- 
" tion, he might have met Jeremiah's fate ; or 
" if we had believed him, net one in a thcufand 
" would have rejijied Great Britain. Indeed, my 
" countrymen, we are fo loaded by our new 
" governments, that we can have little heart to 
" attempt to move under all our burdens ; we 
" have this confolation, when things come to 
" the worn 1 , there mud be a change, and we 
€£ may reji fatisfied, that either the federal or Jlaiz 
" governments mujlfall" 

If " gleanings" like thefe were publi/hed in 
England, would not the people naturally ex- 
claim : What ! the boafted government of A- 
merica come to this already ? The poor Ameri- 
cans are dreadfully tyrannized by the Aristo- 
crats ! There will certainly be a revolution in 
America foon ! They would be jull as much 
miftaken as the people in this country are, when 
they talk of a revolution in England. 

Neither ought we to look upon the emigra- 
tion ofperfons from England to this country as. 
a proof of their being periecuted, and of the 
tyranny of the Englih government. It is paying 
'America a very poor compliment, to fuppoie 
that nothing fhort of perfecution, could bring 
fettlers to l s mores. This is befides the moil 
unfortunate proof that could poffibly be produ- 
ced by the advocates of the French Revolution : 
for if the emigration of a perfon to this country- 
be a proof of a tyranny exiliing in that from 
which he comes, how fuper.latively tyrannical 
muft the government in France be ? But they 
fay, thofe who emigrate from Fiance are Al if- 

[ 6i ] 

tocrats : they are not perfecuted ; -they emi- 
grate becaufe they hate a free country. What ! 
do they really come to / ] mte 

a free country ? Did the governors of Martimco, 
&c. make a capitulation to be lent here, to avoid 
going to a free country ? 1 he Democratic foe 
will certainly oblige the world very much in 
explaining this enigma. 

I am one of thole, who wifh to believe that 
foreigners come to this country from choice, 
and not from ncceflity. America opens a wide 
field for entreprize ; wages for all mechanics are 
better, and the means of fubfiftence proportio- 
nably cheaper than in Europe. This is what 
brings foreigners amongfl: us : they become 
citizens of America for the honeft purpofes of 
commerce, of turning their induflry and talents 
to the beft account, and of bettering their for- 
tunes. By their exertions to enrich themfelves, 
they enrich the Mate, lower the wages, and render 
the country lefs dependent upon others. The 
mod numerous as well as the mo ft ufeful are 
mechanics ; perhaps a cobler with his hammer 
and awls, is a more valuable acquisition than a 
dozen philofophi-theologi-politi-cal empiricks 
with all their boafted apparatus. 

Of all the Englifh arrived in thefe St 
(fmce the war) no one was ever calculated to 
render them lefs fervice than Doctor Pi ieftley ; 
and what is more, perhaps no one (before or 
fince, or even in the war ) ever intended to 
render them lefs : his preference to the Ame- 
rican government is all affectation : his emigra- 
tion was not voluntary : he ftaid in England 
till he faw no hopes of recovering a loft reputa- 
tion ; and then, burfting with envy and refent- 

[ 62 


merit, he fled into what the Tammany fociety 
very jufbly call " baniihment, " covered with 
the univerfal deteilation of his countrymen. 

Here ended the pamphlet in its original form, 
concluding with fome of thofe affertions which 
\vere faid to be the moil <s hazarded, " and for 
the truth of which I am forry I have no 
"better voucher than the Doctor himfelf. 

In the preface to his farewell fermon, preach- 
ed to his difciples at Hackney, he fays : " I hope 
" my friends, avid the public, will indulge me 
** while I give the reafons of its being the lad, 
iC in confequenc? of my having at length, after 
" much hefitation,and new ivith reluctance ,come 

i; to a refolution to leave the kingdom. " 

" I cannot refrain from repeating that I leave 
gc my country with real regret. 

Was it a "hazarded affertion " then, to fay 
that his preference to the American government 
was all affectation, and that his emigration was 
not voluntary ? 

4C My friends, " fays he, cc carneilly advifed 
V me to difguife myfelf as I was going to London. 
" But all that was done in that way was taking 
" a place for me in the mail coach, which I 
" entered at Worcester, in another name than 
" my own. However, the friend who had J he 
'• courage to receive me in London, had thought 
'■' -it necefTary to provide a drefs that mould 
" difguife me, and alfo a method of making my 
cc efcape, in cafe the hcufe fnould have been at- 
*' tacked on my account; and for fome time my 
ci friends would not fufTer me to appear in the 
" Greets. "— — " The managers of one of the 

E 6.3 

principal charities among the diflenters ap- 
plied to me to preach their annual fermon, 
6 and I confented. But the treafurer, a man. 
c of fortune, was fo alarmed at it, that he de- 
" clared he could not fieep. I therefore, to his 
" great relief, declined preaching at all. " — — 
When the Hackney affociation was formed., 
* feveral fervants in the neighbourhood ac-< 
' tually removed their goods ; and when there 
• was fome political meeting at the houfe of 
' Mr. Breillat, though about two miles from 
" my houfe, a woman whole daughter was fer- 
' vant in the houfe contiguous to mine, came 
\ to her miitrefa, to entreat that me might be 1 
" out of the way. " — " On -feveral occafions 
' the neighbourhood has been greatly alarmed 
' on account of my being fo near them. I 
could name a perfon, and to appearance a 
reputable tradefman, who declared that, in. 
cafe of. any difturbance they would immedi- 
ately come to Hackney, evidently for the- 
purpofe of mifchief. In this {fate of things, 
it is not to be wondered at, that, of many fer- 
vants who were recommended to me, and 
' fome that were actually hired, very few could, 
for a long time,be prevailed upon to live with 
me."* — " My eldeft fon was fettled in a 
bufinefs, which promifed to be very advan- 
tageous, at Manchefter ; but his partner, 
though a man of liberality himfelf, informed 
i him, on perceiving the general prevalence of 
c; the fpirit which produced the riots in Bir- 
ii mingham, that, owing to his relationship to 

* ip 'Ehcji&jA fiave! a chsxafter to preferve, I 

64 1 

', he was under the neceffity of propoflng a 

" 'fe'fmfatron, which accordingly took ' place. " 
— " Many times, I have been burnt in effigy 
<; along with Mr. Paine ; and numberlefs in- 
t; ftfj .1 threatening letter:? have been fent 

" to me from all parts of the kingdom " — 
" lii treated as I had been, not merely by the 
" populace of Birmingham, bur by the country 
" in general, and afterwards by the Reprefenta- 
" tii>es t ation , * I own I was not without 

" deliberating on the fu eject of emigration. " 

Was it a "hazarded aiTertion' > then, to fay 
that he i banifhment, covered with the 

univerfal deteftation of his countrymen ? 

Bui, though the above quotations moft am- 
ply prove that he was detefted by the whole 
n, from the Peer to the P&viih-Boy, and 
that he was a volunteer emigrant, about as* 
much as one of the hurlers that our tarpawlings'- 
catch ton .11 of Ireland, yet the real cauie' 

. remains to be explained* 

cm affair was freih in the ■ 
Doctor's mind, .'. " .at he had fome thoughts' 

.ition , t all things confidered,* 

■nniucd to ilay in' England, expofedas"- 
" he was to every kind of obloquy and infult."^' 
He ther nt to Kackney, to fucceed his- 

cear I ikI fellow labourer bi factious me- 

re, as appears by his- 

: an exception or-tv/o here ; 
-vocate the Earl^f 
..Lubor very uy tly coirjj3*ire»,to \P. 

' a Saint. 

C 6 5 1 

him fo much, that he was obliged to remove to 
Clapton. At this place he found the peace and 
tranquillity he fought, and for that reafon, fays 
he, " I took a long leafe of my houfe,and expend- 
" ed a confiderable fum in improving it. Ialfo 
" determined, with the affiftance of my friends, 
" to refume my philofophical and other purfuits ; 
" and after an interruption amounting to about 
" two years, it was with a pleafure that 
" I cannot defcribe, that I entered my new la- 
" boratory, and began the mod common pre- 
" paratory proceffes, with a view to fome origi- 
" nal enquiries .'* 

Here then we fee him (in the month of Auguft, 
1793) in quiet pofleffion of every thing he want- 
ed to enjoy. What then could make him come 
off toAmerica fo foon after ? If he had determin- 
ed to (lay, when expofed to every kind of oblo- 
quy and infult, what could make him fly away 
when no longer expofed to it ? It muft be al- 
lowed that the Dolor's paffion for controverfy 
and perfecution is fuch as would excufe a belief 
that he grew angry with the people for letting 
him alone ; but candour obliges me to confefs 
that this was not the cafe in theprefent inftance ; 
for,he was going on very diligently with his pro- 
ceffes and his " original enquiries/' Yes,reader, 
it was thefe curfed " original enquiries'' that did 
allthemifchief. For,theDoclor being in the height 
of them,happened to fall upon a WONDERFUL 
DISCOVERY, which, though erroneous was 
not original. However, all would yet have been 
fafe, if he had kept it within the walls of his 
laboratory; but his communicative temper would 
not permit him to do this, and the unfo rtu . 

C 66 ] 

pfttc wonderful difccvery made its public entry' 
into the book-feller's fhops on the i6thof No- 
vember, 1793. 

This brought him a " New Tear's Gift" from 
Doctor Harrington, his old antagonist and his 
conqueror, as we mall lee by the following ex- 
tract from the gentleman's Magazine for May, 

" Doctor Prieftley, immediately after the 
" Birmingham riots might be fuppofed to have 
" real caufe of alarm. But as his refolution 
" withftood the firft fury of the flood, it 
" is rather extraordinary that he mould now 
" all at once turn coward, and fly to America. 
" He muft furely be greatly at a lofs for folid 
" reafons, when he thinks it worth while toad- 
" vance fuch trifling circumftances as the gof- 
" fipingof his fervam-maid with the neighbours, 
" or the fooliih declaration of an individual 
" before one of his congregation. But, that 
« the Doclor was able to brave thefe dreadful 
" denunciations and the terrors of his maid, 
" appears from his venturing to take a long 
" leafe of his houfe, expending a confiderable 
" fum of money upon it, and accepting the 
\f contributions of his friends towards another 
" apparatus, laboratory, &c. The Doctor, as 
" a prudent man, would certainly not have ex- 
" pended his money thus, had he not fully de- 
" termined again to remain in the kingdom." 

" Then what, give me leave to afk, Mr. 
" Urban, can have fo lately happened to make 
' s him alter his refolution ? As there appears to 
" be fomething which the Doctor is at pains 

t 6 7 ] 

<L to conceal, it may be worth while to enquire 
" what it is." 

" -Doclor Prieftly, Sir, for many years, .had 
" been acquiring a very high degree of fame 
" from his chemical and philofophical experi- 
v ' ments. According to his own account, it 
" was this great reputation which gave him 10 
*? much confequence in the eyes of the French 
" philofophcrs, and which {auctioned his other 
" puifuits. On the 16th of November laft, he 
" pubiilhed a pamphlet in a very boafting and 
" exulting ftyle, informing the world, that he 
" had made a mod important difcovery, that 
" water was formed of dephlogifticated and 
# phlogifticated airs ; the fame airs, and the 
tc fame proportions, which your correfpondent 
" Doctor Harrington obferves, that the Hon- 
" ourable Mr. Cavendiih, from his miftaken ex- 
" periments, confiders as conftituting the ni- 
" trous acid. The abfurdity of thefe opinions 
" has been pointed out by Doclor Harrington 
" in your Magazine for January and February 
4i lad ; in which it is molt clearly and fatisfa&o- 
ct rily mown in what manner Doclor Prieftley 
" was miftaken : proving at the fame time the 
" real formation of the different airs, difplaying 
" the very great futility and the errors of our 
" modern chemiftry ; and at the fame time, 
" bringing the very heavy charge of plagiarifrn 
61 upon Dodor Prieftley." * 

" As Doctor Prieftley, in this lafl: pamphlet, 
" announced his intentions of publifliing again 
" very foon, having materials for another by 

* See the. New Tear's Gift, to Dr. Prieftley. Gentlemen's 
Magazine,, for Jan. and Feb. 1704. 

[ -68 ] 

" him, expreffing apprehenfions left any«per- 
" fon mould interfere with him in thefe experi- 
" ments, I expected every day to hear of the 
<£ Doctor's vindicating himielf and his opinions, 
" anfwering the charges of Do&or Harrington, 
•" or acknowledging his philolbphical miftakes. 
" Inftead of which, to my very great fur prize, 
" I am informed he is Mealing off to America ; 
■" thus leaving his antagonift ruafter of the 

c field, and only faying that the world may hear 
of him again in his chemical purfuits. This 

6 is certainly very different from what he gave 

us reafon to expect, when lie announced to 

" the world, in his oftenta.ious pamphlet, that 

' we might expect to hear regularly from him. 
" But I think, you will agree with me, that 
." he has totally fled from his aerial chemiftry, 

6 and, what is the moft awkward and extraot- 
" dinary thing of all, without one word of de- 
" fence from the charges of philosophical pla- 
" giarifm." 

" It was not till Doctor Prieftley received the 
" New Year's Gift of your January and Fe- 
" bruary Magazine, that he was in earned a- 
'f about America. And, I am informed, that 
<c he was fomuch afraid that he mould receive 
" another /rom the fame valuable work, that he 

c got on board the fhip the very evening before 
" the Magazine for the month of March made 
" its appearance, although the fhip was not like- 
" ly to fail immediately." 

Was it a " hazarded afTertion " then, to fay 
that the great philofopher was accufed and con- 
victed of plagiarifm, and that he ftaid in En- 
gland till he faw no hopes of recovering a left 
reputation ? 

[ 6 9 

It hns been already obf^rved, that the Doctor 
merited the univerfal odium he laboured under 
in England, ami we find nothing in his juftifi- 
catory preface to his farewell fermon ( which 
was re-publimed at Philadelphia as an indirect 
anfwer to the firft edition of this pamphlet) that 
ought to induce us to reject this opinion. For. 
it certainly will not be pretended that his being 
hated by King, Lords and Commons, by high 
and low, rich and poor, churchmen and diffen- 
ters, proves him to be an innocent inoftenfive 
man: on the contrary, if that trivial and fa- 
vourite republican maxim, " the voice of the 
people is the voice of God," be founded in 
truth, then does the Doctor Hand condemned 
by God as well as man. 

But let us hear a little of what he fays in his 

Afterdating that he had been unjuftly charg- 
ed with being a feditious, factious politician, he 
fays ; " let any one only call his eyes over the 
" long liil of my publications, and he will fee 
" that they relate almoft wholly to theology, &c'.** 
And he has taken care to publifh this lift at 
Philadelphia, amounting to feienty Jive differ- 
ent works. Yes, "by thy works malt thou 
" be judged," but not by the number of them. 

He tells us he hardly ever meddled with politics, 
andin the very next paragraph,acknowledgesthat 
he wrote a fmall anonymous pamphlet (when 
he was a younger man) in favour of Wilkes and 
Liberty. Mr. Wilkes has had the good fenfe to 
retract moft of the wild notions that the Doctor 
wrote to defend, and happy would it have been 
for the latter if he had profited from oge, arid 

[ 7° 1 

from the example of his patron. Mr. Wilkes 
is now a determined champion of that confti- 
tution that the Do&or wanted to deflroy, and 
accordingly, he occupies -one of the firit offi- 
ces in the firft city in the world, while Doctor 
Prieftley js a very infignificant fettler, in a town 
confifting of a couple of hundred of wooden 

Another work he wrote, 3ddrefied to the dif- 
fenters, on the fubject. of the approaching war 
with America ; which he fays was dijlributed in 
great numbers by his friends, and not without effect. 
The fubje£t of this work, and the good it was 
intended to do his country are eafily conceived, 
as hetellsus it was written ntxhe. requefi of Doctor 
Franklin — He does not tell us whether he was 
paid in fterling or continental money for this 

On this occafion the reader will pleafe to bear 
in mind, that I am not pretending that we ought 
to diilike Doctor Prieftley ; for he is certainly as 
much entitled to our gratitude and efteem as 
Arnold was to that of the Britiih. 

After this he fays he meddled no more with 
politics; " except as far as the bufinefs of the 
" Tell Act, and all civil eft ablifhments of religion, 
had a concern with politics/'* And yet he wag 
no factious politician ! 

* This is the great (tumbling block of the Euglifh Dif- 
fenters. What can there be in this Ttf} AB, that makes 
them fo unhapppy I Why, it prevents them from, obtain- 
ing not the kingdom of heaven, but lucrative employments. 

Js it not amazing, that people, who are fo very godly that 
they cannot conform to the eitablifhed religion of the coun- 
try, mould trouble themfeleVes about places and penfions ? 
They are continually telling us that their kingdom is not of 

L 71 ] 

Boafting of his intimate connexion with 
Doclors Price and Franklin is a drole way of 
proving the peaceablenefs of his difpofition, and 
his attachment to his country. With full as 
much reafon might he boaft of being a relation 
of Jenny Cameron or Guy Fawkes. 

Franklin, Price and Prieftley ! A precious trio ! 
well worthy of each other. Methinks I fee them 
now in one of their dark confultations, like the 
three Weird Sifters round their cauldron,brew- 

« Double, double, toil and trouble ; 
" Fire burn and cauldron bubble. " 

As for Benjamin Franklin, Efqr. and Soap 
Boiler, his character for peaceablenefs is as well 
known as his character for gratitude and integrity ; 
and mod people knows that the " political di- 
vine, " Price, fpent the great eft part of a too 
long life in endeavouring to blow up the flames 
of rebellion in England. He was one of the 
principal projectors of the famous college of 
diffenting Jefuits at Hackney; from whence 
were to come the Titus Oatefes of an Unitarian 
Plot. * 

this world, and yet they want to reign. I think, however, 
it would be but right to grant them whatHelvetius was wil- 
ling to grant the Priefts; every thing above the tops of the 

* When this pious old ApoHle of difcord heard of the 
triumphs of the Paris mob, and of the bloody fcenes that 
enfued, he exclaimed : " Lord now let thy fervant depart 
" in peace for mine eves have feen thy fatvatioa ". Pretty 
fa 'vJion truely. According to my ideas of damnation, thr 
fcenes that have taken place iri France fmce the Revolution, 

7 2 ] 

it is pretty clear that the preface, to which I 
have been fo often obliged, was intended more 
to procure the Doctor a favourable reception 
here, than to reconcile him to his countrymen ; 
and, in this refpeft, the thing was prudent, 
though the publifhing of it in England was cer- 
tainly a trait of infolence, unparalleled even in 
the annals of Unitarianifrn. It was courting a 
kick on the breech by way of farewell falute ; 
but even in this he was difappointed, and was 
as lafl: obliged to come off without or even fo 
much as a box on the ear, to afford an excufe 
ior his whining, and for the milk-fop fighs of 
the New-York Societies. 

I have heard many grave people, and by no 
means anarchifls, exprefs a forrow for the ill 
ufage Doctor Prieftley received in England. 
But how was he ill ufed ? — He was tfireatned ; — 
people would not let him into their houfes ; — 
fervants would not live with him ; — a farmer 
would not learn his fon hufbandry ; — a mecha- 
nic turned another fon out of his partnerfhip ; 

Doctor Horny would not fubcribe to his an- 

tichriftian theology, nor Do&or Harrington to 
his aerial chemiftry. Well, and what then? 
Do we call this ill ufuage ? Grant me patience! 
have not the people of England a right to like 
and diilike whom they pleafe, as well as the 
people of America ? 

If, as I have already obferved, he had fallen 
into the hands of a French mob — but flop ; we 
have no occaflon to crofs the fea. If he had 

rH'emble it as much as any think on earth can do. I am 
lure there has been a continual M weeping and wailing and 
^nafhirig 6f teeth ". 

C 73 ] 

fallen into the hands of an American mob, how 
would he have fared ? Let us fee. 

John Ly 

<c was feepta and after having feduced him to 
" come down (lairs, and put himfelf in their 
""power, they feized him. threatened to hang 
cc " him, took him to a retired fpot in the neigh- 
"'boiirhv wood ; and there, jafter cutting off 
* 6 * his hair', tarring and feathering him, fwore 
im "never again to allow the ufe of his houfe 
" for'ari Iffice : havihsf done which, tjiey 

| hhn naked, to a tree, and left him in 
" that fknation till morning. Not content with 
" this, the malcontents, forrie days after, made 
cc him another vifit ; pulled down part of his 
'■'■ houfe', and put him in a fituation to be obliged 
JC to become an exile from his home, and to 
" find an ejfewhere. " 

T/?/s is ho " hazarded auertion," at any rate; 
unlefs Mr. Hamilton hazarded it ; for it is taken- 
from his report to the Prendent of the United 

This mob flopped the mail, cut open thefcag-, 
and cook out the letters. This mob killed feveral 
per^ns, took others prifoner, and ufed the 
Marfiall in particular extremely cruelly : they 
even went fo far astoprefent their pieces at 
him with every appearance of an intention to 
affaflijiate. And yet neither the Marfiall nor 
Lynn nas ever had any thoughts of emigrating. 

Has any thing of this kind ever happened to 
Doctor Prieflley ? Has the weight of a Tingle 

[ 74 ] 

finger, ever been laid upon him, or any of his 
family ?" You have," fay the addreffers at 
New-York, " fled from the rude arm of vio- 
" knee, from the rod of lawlefs power : —We 
" have learned with regret and indignation the 
" abandoned proceedings of thofe fpoilers who 
" deftroyed your houfe and goods, ruined your 
" philofcphical apparatus and library, commit- 
" ted to the flames your manuferipts, pryed into 
" the fecrets of your private papers, and in their 
" b t fury put your life itfelf in danger. — 

" We enter, Sir, with emotion and fympathy 
w into the numerous facrifices ycu muft have 
" made, to an undertaking which fo eminently 
" exhibits our country, as an afylum for the 
<c perfecuted and opprefied. " All this toas 
extremely aj. ropes in the midft of the Weftern 
jnfurre&ion. If it was " barbarian fury '' to put 
life in dancer, what was it to take life away ? The 
people over the mountains feem to have revolted 
on purpofe to make thefe addreffers a laughing 
(lock. Are they not afhamed to have made a 
canting fympathetic addrefs to a ilranger, whofe 
fufTerings, if real, they knew nothing about, 

lie they have borne with a more than ftoic 
fifnrnefs, and without afngle addrefs, the well 
known fufTerings of their own countrymen ? 
Tin ihe Pittfburg affair forgotten ; why 

then do they want to perpetuate the memory of 
the Birnutpham liots ? " Thou hypocrite, iirft 
" caft the beam cut of thine own eye; and then 
" malt thou fee clearly to calt the mote out 
" of thy ' her's eye. " 

The 3o£tor zomplams again in his preface, 
of . ; in the courts of juftice ; and fays, 

C 75 ] 

" I am not unaffected by the unexampled pu- 
" nifhments of Mr. Muir and my friend Mr. 
" Palmer, for offences, which, if, in the eye of 
" reafon, they be any at all, are flight, and v 
" infujficiently proved. But the {Sentence of Mr. 
" Winterbothom, for delivering form the pulpit 
' : -what I am pcrfuaded he never did deliver, and 
" which, fnnilar evidence might have drawn 
" down on myfelf, has forne thing in it (till 
" more alarming. " Aye, aye, very alarming, 
without doubt, but nothing like Dottor Har- 
rinton's New years gift. 

This is another pretty bold trait of modefty 
and moderation. Here are three courts of ju- 
ftice, three grand and three petty juries all con- 
demned in the lump. If what the Doctor fays 
be true, then were the Englifh all become a neft 
of fcoundrels and purgerers, except his innocent 
felf, his three ions, and his worthy friends the 
Botany-Bay Convicts ; but, if what he fays be 
not true, what did he deferve at the hands or 
the Englifh, for thus aiming a ftab at their 
reputation ? 

There are fame among us, who pretend 
to have a belief in this partial juftice in Great 
Britain ; and the hobgoblin accounts of it have 
been noifed about thefe ftates, in a ftyle that 
would have founded well from the top of a 
chimney or, at the bar of a brothel ; but, 
unfortunately for our political vultures, the trial 
of Hardy has undeceived every one that is capa- 
ble of thinking. 

When the account of this trial nrif. arrived, 
K 2 

C ?G 1 

it paufed nearly as great joy, among fome people, 
as did the " taking of Amjicrdam " or the lending 
of " the Duke of York to Paris in an iron cage \ y 
in fact, it was aim oft of feflivic cenfequence. 
But this was foon perceived to be an egregi 
blunder. People began to reflect. What, faid 
they, there is fome jultice left in England then \ 
The nation is not become " one infw'ar EoJlileV' 

What a chance would poor Hardy have flood 
before the Revolutionary Tribunal at Paris or 
Bordeaux ? Would he have had eight days trial? 
Would he have had eight minutes ? Would the 
fans-culotte populace have carried him home 
amidit acclamations ? No ; unlefs it had been to 
his lall home. ' It appears that MefTrs. Erikine 
and Gibbs have received great and deferved 
applaufe for their able defence of an innocent 
man. and that the government has not touched 
a hair of their heads. — Where is Monfieur De 
Mal/Jjerbe, the generous De Maljherbe, who ftep- 
ped forth at rhe age of y$ to defend hh 

innocent and deferted Sovereign r Where 

is he ? — Numbered with the dead ! Gone to the 
receptacle of all that was eflimable in France ! 

Neither his admired talents, his long and 

eminent fervices, his generous fidelity, his gray 
hairs, nor his fpotlefs life, could fave him from 
the fury of thofe regenerated ruffians whom 
Doctor Prieftley does not blulh to call his «« dear 
fellow citizens. " * 

Every man that is condemned in England, 
whether it be by the public voice or by a court of 

* Monfr. De Seze, the fecond counfel of Louis XVL, faved 

his life by flight. 

L 77 "J 

juftice, is fare, according to fome people, to be 
vilely treated. — The people are flaves ; - 1 - the 

jury" was packed. But how. would this 

meafure fuit if meted to ourfelves? A fellow, who 
was hanged here the other day, told the crowd, 
iuft as he was going off, that he had no doubt 
but the greateft part of them merited the fame 
fate. * This " farewell fermon " was full as 
modeft as Dodor Prieflley's ; but if the Englim 
were to pretend to believe that the majority of 
us deierve the halter, mould we not call them 
a fet of narrow-fouled, ill-natured, envious 
wretches ? Certainly we mould, and with a 
grdat deal of juflice too. 

I mould here put an end to my obfervations, 
fiattering myfelf that the whole bufinefs of the 
Dodor's emigration has been fet in a pretty fair 
„ light ; but, as he has lately published fomething, 
' which lie calls an Anfwer to Paine'.s Age of 
Reafon, and, as he there attempts to wipe off the 
charge of deifm, I look upon myfelf as called 
upon to fay a word or two in reply. 

This Atifwtr confifts of a number of letters, 
addrefled to the philofophers in France, and to a 
fbihfiphical unbeliever. In the preface, the 
Doctor fays : " The more I attend to this fub- 
« jed, the more fenfible I am that no defence 
<c of chriftianity can be of any avail 'till it be 
" freed from the many corruptions and abufes 
" which have hitherto encumbered it." Among 
thefe corruptions he numbers, atonement, incarna- 
tion and the trinity ; and, fays he : " The expo- 
« fing of thefe corruptions I therefore think to be 

* See the American Daily Advertifcr. 

L I 6 J 

" the moll effential preliminary to the defence 
u of chriflianity, and confequently I mall omit 
" no fair opportunity of reprobating them in 
" the ftrongeft terms, to whatever odium I 
" may expofe myfelf." He has been as g< 
as his word ; for, the whole piece appears to be 
an attack on the doclrine of the trinity rather 
than an Anfwer to Paine. * 

He begins the firit letter with telling us, that 
he has, " read with pleafure, and even with en- 
" thufiafm, the admirable report of Robefpierre 
" on the fubjecl of morals and religion." Now, 
it is well known, that this report contained a re- 
gular plan for eftablifhing a Jcjhcal worfhip in 
France ; and it is alio well known, that Paine 
wrote his book to flatterRcbefpierre,and by that 
means to procure his own diicharge from pri- 
fon. How comes it then that the Doctor mould 
admire the principles of the one, and pretend to 
anfwer thofe of the other ? 

He very artfully cries off all acquaintance 
with Voltaire, Rouffeau and Gibbon ; but 
he knows they are in a place whence they 
cannot anfwer him. However, Gibbon left him 
a letter that he ought not to have forgotten to 

* If the reader lrx>k~, over the firft and fecond chapters of 
the Gofpel according to St: Matthew, he will lee every 
thing that is neceiliiry to confirm him in the dotlrines that 
Doctor Prieftlej thinks it his duty to r, 

ejl terms. But the Doctor gets rid of this proof, which he 
knows to be »n every one's hands, by telling us that thofe 
two chapters are " fpurious ;" that is tofay, falfe. This is 
a knock-me-do\vn argument. He will certainly tell us that 
the firft chap ter' of the Gofpel of St. John is " fpuriour," 
aifo , and thus he may go on, 'till he leaves us but jufl e- 
nough te^t to make up an Unitarian Creed. 

L 79 "1 

fpbrf. -The Do&or, having no wonderful dij- 

ry upon his hands, wrote to Mr. Gibbon, 
not Ion;;- before the death of the latter, challeng- 
ing him to the combat. This Mr. Gibbon 
very politely declined, by faying, that he could 
never bring himfelf to difpute with a perfon 
from whofe writings he had in a great meafure 
imbibed his principles ; adding, that if theDoc- 
tor was really become a convert to chriftianity 
fince he had' received the laflr anfwer from Doc- . 
tor Horfley, he though':, the propable remainder 
of his life was by no means too long to repair 
the injury the former part of it had done ; and 
therefore, advifed him not to lofe his time in 
vain and unprofitable difpute. If the Doctor 
had followed this falutary advice, we mould 
have been fpared the pain of feeing an old man 
turned of fixty amufing , himfelf and the world 
with a fham anfwer to the wild incoherent blaf- 
phemy of a poor unhappy wretch, whom difa- 
pointment and hunger had driven to defpair, 
and who would have turned Turk, Jew, or even 
Eunuch, for an extraordinary bifcuit or a 
bundle of draw.* 

The Doctor boafts of his having been elecled 
a Deputy to the National Convention, and 
flyles himfelf their " highly honored fellow citi- 
" zen." It is fubjecl both of wonder and re- 
gret, that he did not prefer France to America; 
he was preffed to go there, which he never was 
to come here ; there he could have done no 
harm, here he mav. If he had went to hisa- 
dopted country, and accompanied his colleague, 

♦When we refleft on the degradation of this quondam T,'* 
itor, it is fome coniolation that he is an Englifhman. 

L ^° J 

Paine, in his legiflative career, he might have 
had an opportunity of an/icering him by word 
of mouth. The bottom of a dungeon would 
have been a very fit place for them to debate, 
like Milton's fallen Angels, on the fureft means 
of fowing difcord among mankind, and fedu- 
cing them from their Maker. 

One obfervation more on this anfwer to Paine, 
and I dilmifs it for ever. 

The zealous anfwerer boafts of his freedom as 
an American at the fame time that he calls him- 
felf a citizen of France and a Fellow of the Royal 
fociety of London ! This is being literally, 
" all things to all men." With the Englim he is 
a Royali/l, with the Americans, a Republican, 
and with the French, a Carmagnole. Thus the 
triple Goddefs (under whofe influence, Doctor 
Harrington fwears, he acts) is called Luna in 
heaven, Diana on earth, and Hecate in Hell. 

Before I bid the Doclor adieu, I mould be glad 
to afk him how he finds himfelf in his " afylum." 
It is faid, he has declared that the duplicity of 
our Land-jobbers is more to be feared than the 
outrages of a Birmingham Mob ; and, indeed, if 
all his complaints had had the fame appearance 
of being well founded, the public would never 
have been troubled with thefe obfervations ; for, 
there is little doubt of his having been mojl 
cruelly fleeced. This honed profeflion, vulgarlv 
called land-jobbing, a member of Congrefs very 
juftly ftyled " fwindling upon a broad fcale ;" 
it is, in facl,a South-Sea bubble upon terra firma 9 
as hundreds and thoufands of ruined foreign- 
ers, befides Doclor Priedley, can t edify. 

[ 8i ] 

It is to be hoped that the Dover's anger 
againft his country is by this time nearly afiuag- 
cd : dear bought experience has at laft taught 
him, that an Utopia never exifted any where but 
in a delirious brain. He thought, like too many 
others, to find America a Terreftrial Paradife ; 
a Land of Canaan, where he would have nothing 
to do, but open his mouth and fwallow the milk 
and honey : but, alas ! he is now convinced, I 
believe, that thofe who cultivate the fertile 
Lefowes of Warwickfhire, 

" Where all around the gentleft breezes play 
" Where gentle mufic melts on every fpray, 

have little reafon to envy him his rocks and his 
fwamps, the mufic of his bull frogs and the 
ftings of his mufquitos. 

In the preface, fo often mentioned, the 
Doctor expreffes a defire of one day returning 
to " the land that gave him birth •> " and, no 
offence to the New-York addrefTers, I think 
we ought to wifh that this defire may be very 
foon accomplifhed. He is a bird of paffage 
that has vifited us, only to avoid the rigour 
of an inclement feafon : when the re-animating 
funfhine of revolution lhall burft forth on his 
native clime, we may hope to fee him prune his 
wings, and take his flight from the dreary banks 
of the Sufquehannah to thofe of the Thames or 
the Avon. 





O F 



Certain troublefome fellow, who turn- 
ed his back upon the church, having occafion 
to pafs through a large farm-yard in his way to 
Meeting-houfe, met with a fine majeftic venerable 
old Bull, lying down at his eafe, and balking in 
the fun-mine. This Bull was at times the tamed 
creature in the world ; he would fuffer the 
cura to yelp at him, the flies to teafe him, and 
even feme of the mifchievous fellows to pull 
him by the horns. He was at this very moment 
in one of his gentled humours ; ruminating 
upon pad and prefent fcenes of delight ; con- 
templating the neighbouring dairy and the 
farm-yard, where the milch cows had all their 
bags di (tended till they were nearly running 
» the calves, and the pigs, and the poultry, 
were frifking, and grunting, and crowing on ev- 

[ 8 4 ] 

cry dung-hill ; the granaries were full, and the 
barns ready to burit : there were, befides, ma- 
ny a goodly rick of wheat, and barley, and 
oats, and peafe, and beans, and hay, and rye- 
grafs and clover. The dairy was full of curds, 
and cream, and butter, and cheefe of every 
kind. To be fure, there was plenty for the 
mailer and his family, and all the fervants, and 
every body belonging to the farm. Nay, thofe 
that were poor and needy, and idle, and lazy, 
and fick, and proud, and faucy, and old, and 
infirm, and filly, were freely fupplied : and even 
this troublefome fellow himfelf, notwithftand- 
ing he had long fince quarrelled with the head- 
farmer and all his bell friends, and an old 
grudge was {till fubfifting betwixt them, yet, 
upon making at any time a folemn promife to 
do no mifchief, had free ingrefs, egrefs, and 
xegrefs, into every part of the farm and the 
dairy, and was at liberty to help himfelf 
wherever he liked. In fhort he was allowed to 
do any thing but Jkim the cream and fet his own 
mark upon the butter. 

Now, becaufe the bull had happened to place 
himfelf acrofs his favourite foot-path, although 
there was plenty of room to the right and to the 
left, nothing would fatisfy this impudent fellow, 
but he mult kick Oidjohn, for that was the Bull's 
name, out of his way : and all the world agrees 
that John fuffered him to kick a long while, be- 
fore he fhewed the leaft inclination to rife and 
refent the affront. At laft, however he got upon 
his legs, and began to look rou r.d him, but flill 
it was a look of contempt only, which the 
icolim fellow miflook for the marks of fear ; 

C 85 ] 

and now, growing bolder and bolder, and hal- 
looing the curs, and calling all his comrades to 
prick and goad him in the tendered paits of his 
body, the Bull began to threaten and roar ; — 
this was on 'the 14th of July, one of the hotted 
days in the fummer, when fome body threw a 
fiery flick under his tail, at the very moment that 
a parcel of impudent half wined fellows were 
trying to flourifh a French flambeau ( lighted 
and blazing at both ends ) full in his face. — 
No wonder that the Bull fnould fet oft with a 
vengeance into the flreet : — down went the 
gingerbread-flails, and the hard-ware fhops, the 
buckle menders and the razcr-grinders, and the 
dagger-makers : he even got into private houfes, 
and in one place threw down whole baikets full 
of -bottles and chemical glaffes, crucibles and 
gun-barrels ; — fmafh went all the jars of in- 
flammable air, which inllantly took fire, and 
fpread all over the place ; every thing went to 
rack and ruin ; nothing was fate ; even the re- 
ligious houfes themfelves, where nothing -had 
ever been heard but the mofl pious exhortations 
(like thofe of DoclorViceirimus Knox), to peace 
and harmony, and obedience to the governing 
powers. In fhort, nothing could pacify, or put 
a flop to, the fury of this poor enraged animal, 
till his honeft mailer the farmer, as quiet and as 
good a kind of church-going man as ever lived 
in the world, father of a large family, hearing 
of the rumpus, fent a number of his beil and 
fteadiefl old fervants to muzzle the beafl, which 
had already toffed the fellow with the hery fhc;: 
over the tops of the houfes, and gored him iii 
fifty different places. It was next toa miracle that 

[ 86 ] 

he efcaped with his life; and every body thought 
he had reafon to be thankful that he got off fo 
well as he did ; but no fooner did he find him'felf 
fafe in a Hackney-cJcch, than, to the aftonifhment 
of all the world, he began to preach up his in- 
nocence and to lodge a complaint againft poor 
Old John, who, in the end, fullered a great deal 
more than hirnfelf. Some filly people pitied 
him ; fome laughed at him ; others again were 
wicked enough to wiih him at the devil : — even, 
his bell friends were a (named of him ; and 
although they, one and all, defended him as 
much as they could in public, there was a con- 
founded deal of muttering and grumbling in 
private. " I thought what it would come to," 
laid one ; " a pretty method of driving a mad 
Bull through the church-pales, " faid another. 

But, to go on with my ftory ; ho fooner was 
the Bull fairly muzzled, and .properly confined, 
than the friends and neighbours on both fides 
were called in, to enquire into the whole affair; 
but there were fo many contradictory ilories, 
that it was impofiible to come at the truth, how it 
happened, or who had firft provoked him; but 
fince it was plain to every body that Id J 'oh n did 
the mifchief, and as he was proved to be the 
Town Bull, it was at laft fettled that the pariih 
ihould pay all the damages, for not keeping 
him in better order. 

And here again was frefh matter for difcon- 
tent : fom^ thought it hard to pay for all the in- 
iiammable air, which had done full as much 
mifchief as the Bull. Others again objected to 
a monstrous out-of-the-way heavy demand for a 
large quantity (feveral reams) of fools-cap pa- 

t 37 ] 

per, which had been fcribbled upon and fpoiled 
long before the affair happened. Indeed, in the 
opinion of fome fenfible perions, it was fit 
for nothing but kindling the fire. 

But the ftrangeft part of the (lory remains to 
be told ; for when this buttle was all over and 
fettled, and every body thought the perverfe fel- 
low was going to take to his church, and get 
his living in an honed way, what did he do but 
fet to work bottling up his own f-rts, and felling 
them for fuperfineinflammableair,and what's (till 
worfe,had the impudence to want a patent forthe 
difcovcry ; and,indeed, a good many people were 
deceived for a long time; but, they fay, two of a 
tradecan never agree,and foit happened here; for 
a brother trade one day catched him at his dirty 
tricks andexpofedhim to the wholeparifh.After 
this all the neighbours cried fhame on him : the 
women laughed, the girls they tittered, even the 
little boys pointed at him and made gameofhim 
as he went along theftreet. In fhort, one dark 
night when all the neighbourhood was quiet and 
every body fad afleep, up he got and fat off into 
into the next pariih, bag and baggage. 

Here he trumped up a terrible ftory, pre- 
tended to be frightened to death, andfwore and 

d d his foul if the Bull was not juft at his 

heels. The good folks (who, by the by, had a 
monilrous grudge againft Old John) believed 
him at once: and now there was the devil to 
do again ; the Women fcreamed and fell into fits ; 
out run the men and boys with broomfticks and 
pitchforks and icalping knives to kill the Bull : 
but it was all a mam, for pocr Old John was 
quiet at heme, grazing in the meadow, up to 

[ 88 ] 

his eyes in clover, and blue-bells, and daffodils, 
and cows-lips, and primrofes, as contented as a 
lamb, and neither thinking nor caring any more 
about the fellow with the fiery (lick than about 
one of the flies that he was brufhing off with his 

But the word of all is to come yet ; for 
while thefe filly people were running about and 
making a hue and cry againfl Old John, their 
own Bull (a thirfty beat! that they had penned 
up in a barren lot, without any pond or water- 
ing-place) broke loofe, and did ten times more 
mifchief than John had ever done. This made 
a fine laugh all round the country ; every body 
faid it ferved them juft right ; and fo be fure it 
did, for they mould have looked at home, and 
minded their own Bull, and not run bawling 
about after Old John. 

F I N 1 S. 

y\U, Hist